(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Jesus' paradigm of ministry : a holistic approach for Korean worship"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/jesusparadigmofmOOchah 



-\ 



EPISCOPAL DIVINITY SCHOOL 



Thesis/Project 



JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY 
A HOLISTIC APROACH FOR KOREAN WORSHIP 



V 



BY 



CHWOONG-HOH CHAH 

B.A. Seoul Theological University, 1988 

B.A. SungKyunKwan University, 1993 

Cert. M.A. SungKyunKwan University, 1995 

M.A. Fordham University, 2000 

P.D. Fordham University, 2002 



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the degree of 

DOCTOR OF MINISTRY 

2004 






wUCOMLOIVWnT SCHOOL 



©Copyright by 

CHWOONG-HOH CHAH 

2004 



11 



Approved by 



Superviso r StyV f\ &^A— /^ / "kfVfU^ 

The Rev. Dr. Sheryl A. Kujawa-Holbrook, Ed.D., Ph.D. 
Associate Professor of Pastoral Theology 
Director of Congregational Studies 



Reader 




The Rev. Dr. Ian T. Eiemglas, Ph.D. 
Professor of Mission and World Christianity 
Director of Anglican, Global, and Ecumenical Studies 



in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 

1. My Socio-Cultural Autobiography as an Experiential Point of Departure 

2. My Conceptual Lens as a Theoretical Point of Departure 



PART I. JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY 

Chapter 

A DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY 

BAPTISM AND MINISTERIAL PURPOSE 2 1 

1 . Introduction 

2. Jesus' Baptism in the Gospels 

3. Jesus' Purpose of Ministry 

4. Conclusion 

B DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY 

TEMPTATION AND MINISTERIAL METHOD 50 

1 . Introduction 

2. Jesus' Temptation from a Socio-Cultural Point of View 

3. Jesus' Method of Ministry 

4. Conclusion 

C UNDERSTANDING JESUS' PARADIGM 84 

1 . Introduction 

2. Foundation 

3 . Content 

4. Principle 

5. Conclusion 



IV 



PART H. A WORSHIP MODEL FOR KOREANS 

Chapter 

A EXAMING A KOREAN WORSHIP REALITY 

A SOCIO-CULTURAL ANALYSIS 106 

1 . Introduction 

2. Korean Worship 

3. Confucian Myth 

4. Contemporary Spirit 

5. Conclusion 

B. PLANNING A JESUS WORSHIP MODEL FOR KOREAN CHURCHES 
A WORSHIP MODEL AS A HOLISTIC PASTORAL CARE DRAMA 136 

1 . Introduction 

2. Components 

3 . Image and Pastoral Care 

4. Drama 

5. Conclusion 



CONCLUSION 162 

1. A Jesus' Paradigm of Ministry 

2. A Jesus Worship Model 

3 . Re-Creating Human Relationship, Life, and Image 

4. Toward a Soft Jesus 



APPENDICES 171 

CHARTS A-C 172 

NARRATIVE THERAPY 1 75 

NARRATIVE SERMON 1 87 



WORKS CITED 190 



INTRODUCTION 



My thesis project Jesus' Paradigm of Ministry: A Holistic Approach for Korean Worship 
proposes to develop a new worship model for Koreans according to Jesus' paradigm of 
ministry as found in the gospels. 1 The major premise in my thesis is that Jesus' universal 
paradigm of ministry liberates and re-creates Confucianized Koreans. It is symbolized in 
the new worship model of observing all that Jesus commanded in Matthew 28:20. My 
assumption is that a worship form should be considered as culmination of ministry or 
symbolic of a ministerial system. The latter or the implication of my thesis can be 
simplified in the following logic. 

If all Disciples are baptized in the name of the Triune God, then want to be taught in all 
that Jesus commanded them, therefore worship should be offered in such all points. 
Korean-Disciples baptized want to be taught in all that Jesus commanded them. 
Therefore, Korean-Disciples' worship should be offered in all that Jesus commanded them. 



The gospels indicate Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, i.e., the first four books of 
the New Testament or the Christian Bible. 

2 

Richard Jeffrey, Formal Logic: Its Scope and Limits, 2d ed. (New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989), 66. The Modus Ponens (or "Detachment") means: If 
P then q, P, therefore q. 

P -*■ q 



My thesis project is motivated by the following questions. How does Jesus 
liberate all nations in ministry? Why does Korean ministry not transform even Korean- 
Christians? How can we liberate, transform, or re-create Confucianized Korean ministry 
effectively? The first question will be answered in PART I: JESUS PARADIGM OF 
MINISTRY. The second will be dealt with in CHAPTER A. EXAMINING A KOREAN 
WORSHIP REALITY, PART II: A WORSHIP MODEL FOR KOREANS. And the last 
will be answered in CHAPTER B. PLANNING A JESUS WORSHIP MODEL FOR 
KOREAN CHURCHES of the PART II. 

In this INTRODUCTION, I will present the reasons why I want to deal with this 
project in light of my own life experience. My experience will be expressed in my socio- 
cultural autobiography. And I will present my conceptual lens of ministry and worship to 
suggest how I want to deal with this project. 



1. My Socio-Cultural Autobiography as an Experiential Point of Departure 

The following logic explains what my socio-cultural life or autobiography was/is 
and why I note such a side of my life. If Korean Christianity entirely followed the 



imperative of Jesus' holistic ministry, I would not experience Confucian systems in 
church worship and life. I experienced Confucian systems of relationships at the table, 
before the pulpit, and in pastoral care. Therefore, Korean Christianity did not entirely 
follow the imperative. My socio-cultural autobiography, an example of Modulus 
Tollens, 4 will expose how the Korean church and/or its system diverge from the 
imperative. I am considering this as a Confucian 5 problem since Korean Christians are 
under "elder first" as foundational order, under paternal rights in language, and under 
intelligence politicized, quantified, and materialized in human relationship. The 

Matthew 28:18-20 RSV "Jesus came and said to them [the eleven disciples], 
"All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore and make 
disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you 
always, to the close of the age." RSV is omitted in quoting from the New Testament. 



Richard Jeffrey, 66. The Modulus Tollens means: If P then q, not q, therefore 



not P. 



5 

A simple introduction of Confucianism and what "Confucian" implies is made by 
Donald N. Clark in his Culture and Customs of Korea, Culture and Customs of Asia 
(Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000): 

Confucianism is a value system that seeks to bring harmony to the lives of people 
in communities-the family, the village, and the state. . . .Confucius (551-479 B.C.) 
lived in the Chinese feudal state of Lu . . . taught that people are not created 
equal and do not become equal throughout their lives. . . .These paradigms [He 
taught] are often referred to as the Confucian "five relationships": ruler/subjects, 
father/son, older/younger, husband/wife, and friend/friend. In all of them but 
one-the relationship between friend and friend, assuming the friends are of 
exactly the same age, gender, and social rank- the relationships are unequal and 
required that the weaker party voluntarily submit to the stronger while the 
stronger exercises nurture and protection over the weaker. (30~31) 



Confucian values still are propriety, order, and reality even for Korean Christians. How 
could they rightly realize their realities or problems? How could they read and 
conceptualize the imperative in the images of his free, democratic, inclusive table, true, 
dialogical, God-centered pulpit, and spiritual relationship in the gospels? 

Nevertheless, they are, in fact, standing by their strong desire to follow Jesus' 
teaching in their whole lives whenever they are displeased with their double reality or 
systems between the Word of God and Confucian action or between Jesus' imperative and 
Confucian society. Likewise, my socio-cultural autobiography demands that I study 
what Jesus' imperative was and is from a holistic point of view and how the Korean 
church can observe the imperative in its worship and solve its problems. 6 

I was born in Korea as the first of two sons. My parents had a Confucian 
wedding. My father was educated for twelve years and served as a soldier for his nation, 
the Republic of Korea, for three years. He ran a business in Seoul with his share and 
business funds from his wife's father as well as his own father. He had a continuous 
slump in business for three years when I was a middle school student. 



Matthew 28:19-20 implies a holistic system of Jesus' ministerial teaching and 
the importance of worship observing all that He commanded: "Go therefore and make 
disciples of all nations, baptizing . . . teaching them to observe all that I have commanded 

you." 



My father's opinion and decision in dealing with affairs around the family were 
generally accepted from his siblings as well as his family. He forced me to choose a 
technical high school as my next school. He named his first son, i.e. me (when I was 
only sixteen), the bearer of economic responsibility for his family when he declared 
bankruptcy before his family of three persons. It was a Confucian order not to give up 
his rights as an elder or a patriarch; what "elder first" implies is possessing all physical 

•n 

rights as well as an exclusively decisive power in the Korean family system. Thus his 
mandate to me meant transfer of duty only. 

I was a strenuous and model student in my early school days, and so I believed 
that I could do what I wanted. My artistic talent also stabilized my world of emotion, 
and I won many prizes. However, my feeble self-confidence was broken by the father's 
Confucian authoritative decision when choosing a high school. I wanted to go to a 
common high school to enter a university, but he thought that I should go to a technical 



n 

Phenomena of Confucian way of life are presented by Donald N. Clark in his 
Culture and Customs of Korea, Culture and Customs of Asia (Westport: Greenwood Press, 
2000): 

In today's Korea, for example, children learn before the age of ten that their lives 
are not their own but belong to their families. . . . Questions of what to study, 
where to go to college, and, above all, whom to marry, are all decisions that are 
made with the advice of parents. (32) 



high school. At that time I could learn what Confucian values are, what Confucian order 
is, and how Confucianism oppresses the people. 

I began to attend an evangelical church when I was in the first year at a technical 
high school. My old conservative lifestyle of concentrating on school and home study 
was broken with my new religious lifestyle of concentrating on reading the Bible and 
participating in church worship. I wanted to find out whether God is alive and whether 
God is related to me. It was only a change from the Korean traditional lifestyle to a new 

o 

Korean Christian rhythm. 

I was officially reborn/baptized on March 25 , 1979, at the age of eighteen, in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Although I was only a third 
year student of a high school, I started a lay ministry in my mother church. I led church 
congregational praise alone with a nation-class student pianist in Korea whenever the 



Q 

There are two useful data to understand what being a Christian is in Korea. 
How Christianity accomplished its inculturation in Korea is explained by Don Baker in his 
"Christianity "Koreanized,"" in Nationalism and the Construction of Korean Identity, Korea 
Research Monograph 26, ed. Hyung II Pai and Timothy R. Tangherlini (Berkeley: The 
Regents of the University of California, 1999): 

Adopting many of the practices and values of their new neighborhoods, Buddhism 
and Christianity reinforced the bonds of loyalty to the social and political 
communities they had joined. This is what has happened with Christianity in 
Korea as well. (109) 

6 



church held revivals, gathering over four hundred persons a meeting. I also experienced 
a special group ministry with another nine students in a suburb of Seoul for ten days and 
nine nights. God let us gather from forty to two hundred children at our final meeting. 
I was noticed by my mother church affiliated with the Korea Evangelical Holiness 
Church 9 and with Seoul Theological University (STU) 10 . 

My lay ministerial experience was focused on cultivating a Christian culture in 
the world of emotion and spirit through praising God in gospel songs. The experience 
continued in my first seminarian year at STU and in the Korean Army for three years. I 
led chapel praise with another two or three senior leaders for a full academic year because 
of my previous praise experience at my mother church and my membership in the biggest 
music circle, "Gospel Sound," at STU. 

Since being a Christian for me meant being outside my family system and since 
engaging in a lay ministry in Korea did not imply any church support, I joined the Korean 
Army after one hard school year as a self-supporting full time student. I participated in 
mission of the I Corps for its military jail and hospital as a member of the special mission 

http://www.kehc.org . 



10 



http://www.stu.ac.kr . 



group "Corps Sound," while serving as a specialty soldier of I Corps headquarters. 

When coming back to my first college year of STU, I had an opportunity to 
conduct Gospel Sound. However, I still didn't have any support system to enable me to 
keep studying, and I thought that I might lose an important chance at intellectual 
development by taking such a position, since there were many student musicians in the 
circle. 

In fact, I would not have had a chance of leading gospel songs at my mother 
church and of entering STU's department of theology if my high school had not then been 
one of the first class technical high schools in Korea This symbolizes that many Korean 
churches retain intellectually or in intellectual order what Confucianism represents in 
politics. In a sense, Korean inculturation 12 means strengthening individual faith or a 

1 "X 

path to what careeristic values work in the Korean political system of Church and 



A simple clue to leadership system in Korean Christianity is well presented by 
Donald N. Clark in his Culture and Customs of Korea, Culture and Customs of Asia 
(Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000): 'in Confucian societies such as China and Korea, 
education was a prime qualification for leadership." (35) 

12 

A definition of inculturation is presented by Aylward Shorter in his Toward A 
Theology of Inculturation (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1997): "A short definition of 
inculturation is: the on-going dialogue between faith and culture or cultures. More fully, 
it is the creative and dynamic relationship between the Christian message and a culture or 
cultures." (10) 

Careerism implies that the very important thing in life is success. 

8 



society. 

In other words, the Korean church is presenting two incompatible ways: a way of 
physical contribution and another way of intellectual participation. No one in the former 
life can be promoted to a paid position within one's church system. Anyone in the latter 
vocation is not required to participate in all church meetings but only at Sunday worship, 
since they occupy a special position in what is eventually a Confucian church system. 
This discriminatory practice of Korean Christianity has promoted national and church 
development toward physical growth on the one hand, and made Korean society and 
church extremely competitive on the other. 

I wanted to do my best as a theological student. The first intellectual journey to 
improve my understanding of the gospels at STU fostered my will to study while it 
weakened my health, since I lacked of books, time, and food. After my ministerial and 
private lecture experience for two years, I got married to a female lay bible teacher on 
February 24 , 1990, who was also a single Christian in her family. I could then resume 
my intellectual journey to prepare for a preaching ministry through my wife's support; she 
had graduated from Seoul Health College. God let me continue my study in philosophy 



9 



at SungKyunKwan University (SKKU), 14 which was one of the top four or five 
universities in Korea and is the oldest Confucian university in Korea (over six hundred 
years old). 

Since Korean churches attached importance to the linguistic leadership of 
preachers, to study philosophy was an ideal way forward in the ministry. However, I 
wanted to be a campus minister as a professor at a university in Korea after a Ph.D. from 
SKKU, since I realized that there are many students in campuses whose life experience 
was as hard as I had experienced. What I wanted was to provide a system for self- 
supporting students that all churches I served ignored. 

I came to the U.S.A. because of the global movement, Uruguay Round, 15 and to 
raise my competitive power in the Korean academic job market. I hesitatingly started my 
study at Fordham University 16 in Religion and Religious Education because the major 



SungKyunKwan was the first highest national education institution founded in 
1398 by the first King of the Yi Dynasty. SungKyunKwan is now the headquarters of 
Confucianism in Korea and SungKyunKwan University is a private comprehensive 
university since 1946. http://www.skku.ac.kr. 

Uruguay Round signed on April 15 th , 1994. Detailed information of the 
Uruguay Round is set up on 
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact5_e.htm. 

http://www.fordham.edu. Fordham University is the New York City's Jesuit 
University and belongs to the Second Tier of the National Universities group U.S. News 
and World Report evaluates annually. 

10 



was not philosophy. I thought that the school name was not well known enough to 
enable me to take a teaching position in Korea. 

However, my study at Fordham and ministerial experience at Korean-American 
churches in the New York area 17 made me realize why the present systems of Korean and 
Korean-American churches are problematic. Almost all the churches I served were not 

1 8 

grounded in Jesus' democratic or inclusive table fellowship, but in the Confucian order 
of "elder first" at tables that fosters discriminatory treatment. 19 A person's clothing or 



lt There are 567 Korean-American churches in the Greater New York area which 
is composed of Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York, according to Korean Churches 
Yellow Pages 2003 (Los Angeles: Christian Today, 2003). http://www.christiantoday.net. 
And the Council of Korean Churches of Greater New York says it has 543 member 
churches in 2003. Churches Directory of NY 2003 {The Council of Korean Churches of 
Greater New York, 2003). http://www.nyckcg.org. 

1 Q 

Longman Dictionary of American English, New ed. (White Plains: Longman. 
2000): "Fellowship n 3 [U] a feeling of friendship resulting from shared interests or 
experiences." (s. v. "Fellowship") 

Definitions of fellowship are shown in The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 
on Historical Principles, 1993 ed., vol. 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993): 

Fellowship n. & v. Middle English, [f. FELLOW n. + SHIP.l A n. 5 A body of 
fellows or equals; a company. Now rare. . . . B v. Obsolete 1 v.t. Unite in 
fellowship; associate with, to. late Middle English-M16. ... 3 v.t. Admit to 
fellowship; enter into participation or comradeship with. Now only in religious 
use. late Middle English. 4 v.i. Join in fellowship; associate with. Now only in 
religious use & chiefly US. late Middle English, (s. v. "Fellowship") 

My use of Jesus' fellowship or table fellowship is to emphasize His equal, open, or 
inclusive manner at tables. 

I served Korean-American churches of almost all Korean major denominations. 
They were an Assembly of God church, two Presbyterian churches (KPCA and PCUSA), a 

11 



garment 20 and social position are still considered as the bearers of Christian hierarchy, 
even before Christian communion fellowship. The Korean and Korean-American 
churches did not consider social-economical or physical oppression as an object of their 
healing ministry. And there was also alienation between preachers and congregations 
and a religious identity problem in Christian communities. Jesus' dialogical or 
dialectical preaching ministry was ignored in Christian ministry, as it was also in 
Confucianism. 

Such phenomena at Korean-American churches made me realize that Korean 
churches' realities here are not different from those at home. In fact, most Korean 
Christians, including Korean-American Christians, are displeased with the discontinuity 
between Church and society. They are also displeased with keeping silent in presenting a 
Christian model of life that can work according to Jesus' imperative in Matthew. That is, 



Methodist church, a Baptist church (SBC), and an Evangelical church (KEHC). I also 
served a UCC church. 

20 

A very useful article of garments, clothing symbolism, and its socio-cultural 
implication is made by Eugene A. Laverdiere in his "A Garment of Camel's Hair," 
Emmanuel 92-10 (December 1986): 

In ancient cultures as in so many cultures today, presenting someone by 
referring to the person's clothing was just as forceful as giving the person's 
name. Like the name, the clothing revealed someone's identity. . . . The 
primary purpose of clothing was not to conceal but to reveal. (546) 



12 



most Korean and Korean- American Christians want to meet and live with Jesus' God and 
to experience Jesus' power in their preaching, fellowship, and healing ministries or in their 
holistic life. Toward this end, 21 Christian worship, first of all, should be renewed 
according to Jesus' teaching in ministry and life, since every Christian focuses his or her 
life or ministry on Sunday worship and activities. 



2. My Conceptual Lens as a Theoretical Point of Departure 

a) Methodologies 

My thesis project will study Jesus' philosophy of ministry and develop a Korean 
worship model. It will be composed of the following answers that I have formulated. 
First, I will read both Jesus' imperative and ministry as it is found in the gospels and 
Korean ministry as it is explained in Confucianism from a socio-cultural point of view, i.e., 
a holistic system of fellowship, preaching, and healing ministry. Second, I will read 
philosophically the imperative and ministry in the gospels to make disciples 22 of all 



21 

This is my reason of this thesis project. 

22 

A definition of dischipleship is made by Timothy E. O'Connell in his Principles 
for a Catholic Morality, Revised ed. (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1990): 

13 



nations. Finally, I will apply my philosophical reading of Jesus' ministry or Jesus 1 
paradigm of ministry to construct a worship model for Koreans. 

The methodologies for this thesis project will be philosophical analysis and 
application or hermeneutic methodologies, both in terms of Jesus' ministry and in relation 
to Korean worship and ministry. Using the methodologies of philosophical analysis and 
hermeneutic understanding, I will carry out a socio-cultural analysis of Jesus' ministry in 
the gospels and of Confucianized Korean worship in linguistic contexts in light of 
Hermeneutics. This philosophical analysis or hermeneutic understanding will define 



They [disciples] were to be learners (matheiteis). followers ready and willing to 
learn from the teacher. They were to follow him, remain with him, become loyal 
to him. . . . But in his [Jesus] case the notion of discipleship took on several 
interesting nuances. 

First, discipleship meant the simple fact of following after the Lord. . . . 

. . . What was much less traditional was a second meaning that 
discipleship had for Jesus: the idea that the disciple was to replace Jesus, act on 
his behalf, take on a mission for the sake for the Lord. (40~41) 

93 

New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2d ed. vol. 6, s. v. "Hermeneutics." 
Ned Noddings, Philosophy of Education (Boulder: Westview Press. 1995): 

Philosophers who engage in hermeneutics accept contingency and historicity. 
They seek meaning in both texts and life itself as it unfolds historically. . . . 
Hermeneutical work enlarges the scope of our vision, suggests new meanings, 
and encourages further conversion. It pushes us into a holistic practice of sorts, 
one in which we can rarely attach separate meaning to the atomistic parts. . . . 
Hermeneutics has a practical bent. It tries to make sense out of history and 
contemporary contexts without tying either to rigid theoretical 
foundations. . . .Whenever philosophers reject ultimate purposes and fixed 
meanings, whenever they urge a diversity of views and a continuing 
conversation, whenever they recognize pluralism and reject monistic tendencies, 

14 



Jesus' ministry in the gospels and examine and/or make clear the reality of Korean 
worship as a philosophical project through its contextual analyses. 

Philosophical application will enable us to understand Jesus' paradigm of 
ministry and plan a worship model centered in this paradigm. Philosophical application 
or hermeneutic practice will make clear a semantic holism of Jesus' paradigm of ministry 
and a holistic program for worship. 



b) Definitions 

The following definitions will be fundamental to the Korean worship model I 
am developing in this thesis: 



Ministry: The disciples' dual relationship and/or life, starting with their being baptized in 
the name of the triune God, observing as practicing, re-creating, or teaching the 
very human image or relationship in all that Jesus lived, exemplified, or 
commanded, and culminating as dramatizing, worshiping, or observing all the 



they are working in the hermeneutic spirit. (71-72) 



15 



acts or images that Jesus performed and commanded at table, in dialogue, and 



in healing 



24 



Worship: The disciples' holistic drama performed, both to God and with their fellow 
creatures in God's image, and as symbolic of real human life according to 
Jesus. The worship community, entity, or event is composed of disciples 
and their potential disciples at open table, of listeners to God's word, and of the 
spiritual creatures, i.e. people, under God's healing. The community, entity, 
or event itself is the experiential or epistemic foundation, not 
epistemological ' truth. The former depends on its context and the latter on 



Matthew 28:19-20 "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to 
observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the 
age." 

or 

John 4: 23-24 "The hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will 
worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship him. God is 
spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." 

John 17:20-21 "I do not pray for these only, but also for those who are to 
believe in me through their word, that they may all be one: even as thou, Father, art in me, 
and I in thee, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that thou hast 
sent me." 

27 

A philosophical definition of "epistemic" is shown in Dictionary of Philosophy 
edited by Dagobert D. Runes (New York: Philosophical Library, 1942): "Epistemic- (Gr. 
Episteme, knowledge) Relating to knowledge." (93) 

28 

See, for a conceptual distinction between epistemic and epistemological, 

16 



the text. In the point, the community, entity, or event can be either a socially 
conservative society or a liberal one if it is considered as an end. In fact, the 
real community, entity, or event reflects the disciples' reality of worship, 
ministry, or life epistemologically since the true worship community, entity, or 
event should depend on the disciples' epistemological or hermeneutic 
understanding and practice of Jesus' holistic ministry. 



Paradigm: Jesus' course of action itself in ministry as a way that the disciples should 
follow. It is holistic, systemic, and semantic, since it is interpretable 



Dictionary of Philosophy- 

Epistemological Objects'- The object envisaged by an act of knowledge whether 
the knowledge be veridical, illusory or even hallucinatory in contrast to 
ontological object, which is a real thing corresponding to the epistemological 
object when knowledge is veridical. (93) 

What I note is "epistemic" as a focused on natural experience itself and 
"epistemological" as a focused on relational validity between knowledge and its object. 

This means that we should not accept a church and its worship as an 
unquestionable bearer of truth. 

30 Matthew 28:20 "All that I have commanded you." 

o 1 

Luke 10:8-9 "Whenever you enter a town and they receive you, eat . . . 
heal . . . and say to them." 

32 

John 15:12, 17:16 "This is my commandment, that you love one another as I 
have loved you. . . . They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world." 

17 



in the whole ministry of Jesus, in an organic relationship of a community, 
and/or in Jesus' commandment. 



Model: Jesus' example in ministry and for worship. It refers to Jesus' holistic worship 
and/or ministerial model, although there may be baptism models, teaching 
models, and worship models in Jesus' ministry. 



Korean(s): Person(s) of Korean descent who can speak and understand Korean, '' know 
the positive and negative meanings of religion in Korean society, and 
understand the cultural phenomena, whether they are new or old, in Korean 
life. Among Korean-Americans who are classified as Koreans socio- 
culturally are the first generations of immigrants and their children who were 
educated in school and cultural system of Korea. 



Confucianism: The currently conservative thought, system, and values of Koreans. 



33 

The Encyclopedia Americana, International ed., vol. 16, s. v. "Korea: 8. The 
Republic of Korea." 

18 



Confucianism comes from Confucius (551-479 B.C.) in the Chinese feudal 
state of Lu says that unequal and/or hierarchic life and/or relationships are 
ideal for family, society, and nation. 34 Implicit in Confucianism is the 
notion that every problem comes from the human desire for equality. 



Semantics/Holism/System: Semantics deals with linguistic meaning within a certain 
paradigm. Holism is based upon the premise that a phenomenon and/or 
phenomena can be explained by the whole relationship, not by the sum of its 
parts. System implies a relationship of human life. 



Donald N. Clark, Culture and Customs of Korea (Westport: Greenwood Press, 
2000), 30-31. 

The New Encyclopaedia Britannica- Ready Reference, 15 ed., vol. 10, s. v. 
"Semantics:" 

Semantics. Also called SEMIOLOGY, or SEMASIOLOGY, the study of meaning. 
Semantics may be approached from a philosophical, or logical, point of view or 
regarded from a linguistic point of view. ... In the disciplines of philosophy and 
linguistics, semantics is the study of the relationship between the signs of a 
language and their meaning. (623) 

Peter Steinke, Healthy Congregations'- A Systems Approach (New York: An 
Alban Institute Publication, 1996): 

Systems thinking is basically a way of thinking about life as all of a piece. It is a 
way of thinking about how the whole is arranged, how its parts interact, and how 
the relationships between the parts produce something new. A systems 
approach claims that any person or event stands in relationship to something. 
You cannot isolate anything and understand it. . . . 

No problem can be seen in isolation. The problem is in the whole, not 

19 



c) Limitations 

This thesis project will neither endeavor to develop a theology or dogma of 
ministry nor to make a theological or dogmatic model of worship. It will rather develop 
a philosophy of ministry and its application to Korean worship. 

The theology of ministry should be focused on the biblical orientation of Jesus' 
ministry rather than on its philosophical implication. Likewise, the theological model of 
worship should be focused on biblical-historical events of worship rather than connecting 
the ministry with worship. In a word, this thesis project will neither focus on the biblical 
theology of ministry nor the biblical-historical theology of worship. 



the part. . . . The problem is in the interaction between the parts. The same is 
true for solutions and correlations. . . . 

. . . The whole of their interaction is more than the sum of the parts. . . 

When we think of the congregation as a system or a whole, we also 
consider all of the interaction of the parts. (3-4, 8) 



37 Ibid. 



20 



PARTI 
JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY 



I will deal with Jesus' paradigm of ministry in the gospels from a socio-cultural point of 
view, noting his purpose and method of ministry. 



CHAPTER A 
DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY 
BAPTISM AND MINISTERIAL PURPOSE 



1. Introduction 

"I" baptize "you [Chwoong-Hoh Chan]" in the name of the Father and of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit. 

I was officially baptized at the age of eighteen under the universal and triune baptismal 
formula Jesus ordered in Matthew 28:19: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, 
baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." The two 
meanings of Jesus' baptismal formula are symbolized in "all nations" and the name of the 

21 



triune God respectively. 

My baptismal ceremony, however, meant rejecting the habits of drinking and 
smoking, confessing human sinfulness, Jesus Christ's lordship, and God's creation, and 

TO 

beginning the tithe and observing the Lord's day. All the things were to converge on 
ecclesial life since only the ecclesial life or dimensions of the Korean baptismal vows was 
active. The baptism, in fact, became the means of entrance into the church. I 
assumed that the existing church order was unquestionable. My baptismal life should 
reflect the church order that could be identified with ecclesial lifestyle. Likewise, the 
purpose of my ministries was to learn, keep, and reproduce the church order or lifestyle. 
I learned to keep Sunday worship as well as the tithe and to avoid doing any good work 
outside the church on Sunday. This was Korean baptismal and ministerial 
hermeneutics. 40 



oo 

My first denomination was the Korea Evangelical Holiness Church: 
http://www.kehc.org . 

on 

The Korea Evangelical Holiness Church's official statement of the ecclesial 
meaning of the baptism is shown in Baptismal Questions and Answers, Korean ed. (Seoul: 
The Korea Evangelical Holiness Church Press, 2001): "Baptized members can participate 
in the Eucharist, have the right to vote on their important church matters, and become 
staff members (deacons, elders etc.) as having full membership of the church. They also 
owe duties to the church." (5) 

The Korea Evangelical Holiness Church's official statement of the baptismal 
and ministerial life is shown in the Chapter 4 The Rules of Life, in The Constitution, 

22 



However, were those really the baptism and the ministerial purpose that Jesus 
himself experienced or practiced and ordered 9 No. Did the baptism what Jesus 
experienced and ordered really aim at ecclesial elitism or church membership? "Not at 
all" is my answer. Then, did the ministry he practiced and ordered aim at the well- 
ordered church? My answer is also "No." Nevertheless, many denominations are still 
in such a position. 

Given baptism as forming the church, what is the kingdom of God? A report of 
the Commission on Theology of my current denomination, the Christian Church 
(Disciples of Christ), 42 presents a linguistic answer as a last resort: "In baptism we are 



Korean ed. (Seoul: The Korea Evangelical Holiness Church Press, 1998): 19-20. In a 
word, devout life to God [Article 26] is composed of the Holy Sunday, prayer, the 
ecclesial way of life, and the tithe and offerings. (20) The member's attitudes toward the 
ecclesial life [Article 28] are formed of the following eight forbidden clauses: Defamation 
of individual or ecclesial character, ecclesial agitation, linguistic violence, disobedience to 
the superior authorities, critical interpretation of the Bible, meetings without the church 
minister's approval, illegal entry into the church and personnel, and privatization of the 
church's properties. (22) 

The report title was "A Word to the Church on Baptism (1987)." The members 
of the Commission on Theology were: William R. Baird, Walter D. Bingham, Paul A. Crow, 
Jr., James Duke, Wallace R. Ford, H. Jackson Forstman {Chairperson), Beverly R. Gaventa, 
Howard B. Goodrich, Jr., Kenneth E. Henry, Joe R. Jones, Michael Kinnamon, Vance Martin, 
Narka Ryan, Ann Updegraff Spleth, Clark M. Williamson, and Robert K. Welsh {Staff). 

The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) is one of the seven mainline 
churches of Protestantism: http://www.disciples.org. The term "mainline Protestantism" 
is defined by Edward L. Queen II, Stephen R. Prothero, and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr. in 
their The Encyclopedia of American Religion History {New York: Facts On File, Inc., 
1996): 



23 



identified with the church local and global, past and future. From our baptism Christians 
grow through transformation of loyalties into citizenship of God's kingdom." This 

should be a paraphrase of the verses in Matthew 16: 13-20: 

Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, ... He said 
to them [his disciples], "But who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter replied, 
"You are the Christ, the Son of the living God " ... "I tell you, you are Peter, and 
on this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail 
against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you 
bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be 
loosed in heaven." 

There are at least two problems here. There is no connecting point between the baptism 
and the confession in the gospels. What the kingdom is understood as the purpose of the 
baptism is an excessive John the Baptist-laden interpretation. 44 



The term "mainline Protestantism" refers to the group of dominant Protestant 
denominations that long occupied the center of American religious life. . . . the 
UNITED CHURCH OF CHURIST; the EPISCOPAL CHURCH; the PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH (U.S.A.); northern Baptists, now the AMERICAN BAPTIST CHURCHES 
IN THE U.S.A.: the UNITED METHODIST CHURCH; the Disciples of Christ (see 
CHRISTIAN CHURCH (DISCIPLES OF CHRIST)); and the EVANGELICAL 
LUTHERAN CHURCH IN MAERICA, the largest Lutheran body. (378) 

Paul A. Crow and James 0. Duke, eds., The Church for Disciples of Christ: 
Seeking to Be Truly Church Today, A Report and Resource by the Commission on 
Theology Council on Christian Unity (St. Louis: Christian Board of Publication, 1998), 130. 

See, for the John the Baptist-laden interpretation of Jesus' baptism, The 
Church for Disciples of Christ: Seeking to Be Truly Church Today 

Early Christian interpretations of baptism often trace Christian baptism to the life 
of Jesus. We find within the New Testament two important claims about the 
baptism of Jesus. First, the Gospel writers include Jesus among those baptized 
in the renewal movement led by John the Baptist. The Gospel writers testify to 

24 



Is our understanding of the baptism and the ministry not to come from what 
Jesus experienced or acknowledged and ordered 9 It seems to ask me to do two things. 
One is what Jesus' baptism was that he experienced and ordered. The other is what his 
ministerial purpose was in practice and in its imperative? 

My methodologies of examining Jesus' baptism are dual: historical and 
ontological. The former comes from the conviction that Jesus' baptism by John the 
Baptist itself was a historical fact. My historical study will make clear its socio-cultural 
implication. The latter comes from my ontological notice of the baptismal context. The 
ontological approach to the ceremonial context will make clear the meaning of Jesus' 
baptism. 

My methodology of defining Jesus' purpose of ministry is socio-cultural. The 
reason is my assumption that Jesus knew the exclusive Jewish world of socio-cultural life. 



Jesus' baptism, and they locate in that event divine approval of Jesus and uV 
beginning of his ministry (Mark 1:9-11, Matthew 3:13-17, Luke 3:21-22, John 
1:29-34). (121) 

I do not agree with what the first statement implies. Here I assume that there 
are at least two kinds of interpretations of baptism: ontological and teleological. The 
former refers to Jesus' view of life world that sees baptism as the starting point of 
religious life. The latter refers to John the Baptist's view of religious judgment that sees 
baptism as an evidence of religious symbolic repentance and salvation. 



25 



And he aimed at new a sociocultural life, relationship, or image of humanity. ' My 
assumption comes from Matthew's report of Jesus' socio-cultural teaching. (5:21-48) 
Jesus' purpose of ministry seemed to re-create the very humanity in the world of life. 

In a word, to define Jesus' purpose of ministry means to make clear his socio- 
cultural meaning of ministry. My research areas here will be limited to the gospels: 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. 



45 Matthew reports that Jesus wanted to heal the Jewish exclusive community, 
hierarchic oppression, and physical faith. See the following verses. "Why does your 
teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners?" (9:11) "The scribes and the Pharisees sit 
on Moses' seat." (23:2) "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe 
mint and dill and cumin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law, justice and 
mercy and faith: these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others." (23:23) 

Matthew reports Jesus' new six teachings in diction: "You have heard that . . . 
but I say to you that . . ." 

Here, I should say that there were dual purposes of Jesus' ministry for us: 
Unrepeatable and re~creational. Jesus' unique purpose of ministry was not to be 
repeated and his universal purpose was to be reproduced by disciples in history. It is the 
gist of the viewpoint of lineal history. Given once his own unique purpose without all he 
ordered, we can remove his baptism of sacrifice in understanding disciples' ministerial 
imperative. That is to say, all my study here should be understood from the viewpoint of 
historical reproduction. 

See Marianne Micks, Deep Waters: An Introduction to Baptism (Cambridge: 
Cowley Publications, 1996): 

The author [St. Paul] warns these Christians against returning to the Mosaic 
system of priesthood and sacrifice. He holds up the new order over against the 
old: Christ's sacrificial death need not be repeated, because it has opened the 
way to God once and for all. (74) 



26 



2. Jesus' Baptism in the Gospels 

Jesus' baptism was performed by one who was called John the Baptist, John the 
baptizer, or John the son of Zechariah. 48 This implies that a correct understanding of the 
baptism of Jesus will be impossible without studying the historical characteristics of 
John's baptism and the ontological situation of Jesus' baptismal event or ceremony and his 
experience itself 49 

John's baptism was water baptism. It is clear in Matthew's report. "I baptize 
you with water for repentance." (3:11) The physical formula of water was a sign for 
repentance. Using water as a religious sign, according to G. R. Beasley-Murray, 50 

implied that it should be interpreted in Jewish purification traditions. 

In baptism a transition was sought from the condition and destiny of the 
unrighteous to that of the righteous. It sealed the repentant as members of the 
covenant people fitted for the appearing of the Messiah, and therefore with hope 
of inheriting the Kingdom of the Messiah. (33) 



See Matthew 3:1, Mark 1:4, and Luke 3:2 in turns of the names. 

I assume that there are at least two kinds of interpretations of baptism: 
ontological and teleological. The former refers to Jesus' view of life world that sees 
baptism as the starting point of religious life. The latter refers to John the Baptist's view 
of religious judgment that sees baptism as an evidence of religious symbolic repentance 
and salvation. 

B. R. Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. 
Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994) 

27 



The water baptism was a way to satisfy the Jewish religious desire, i.e. it was basically an 
exclusive symbol of the chosen people. 51 John's definition of water baptism well 
describes his exclusive point of view: ""Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand " . . . 
Who warned you [the Pharisees and Sadducees] to flee from the wrath to come?" 
(Matthew 3:2, 7) The water baptism was a salvific sign moving from "judgment" to "the 
kingdom." John's water baptism, in a sense, seemed to be a new movement that 
reinforced Jewish religious elitism and the purification tradition. 

John's baptism took place in the wilderness and also a transitional baptism. 



See Matthew 3:5-6 for why John's baptism was an answer to the existing 
Jewish religious desire: "Then went out to him [John] Jerusalem and all Judea and all the 
region about the Jordan, and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing 
their sins." Matthew geographically describes how Jewish people did react to John's 
baptism in the Jordan similar to Mark: "There went out to him [John] all the country of 
Judea, and all the people of Jerusalem: and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan, 
confessing their sins." (1:5) Luke, on the other hand, created a new version: "All the 
people were baptized." (3:21) 

The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles, 1993 ed., 
vol. 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993): "Elitism n. advocacy of or reliance on the 
leadership or dominance of a select group mid (in dates) 20." (s. v. "Elitism") 

See also: "Exclusivism n. a doctrine or policy of systematic exclusion, esp. of 
foreigners: the practice of excluding: mid (in dates) 19." (s. v. "Exclusivism") 

CO 

Raymond A. Martin, The Elusive Messiah-' A Philosophical Overview of the 
Quest for the Historical Jesus (Boulder: Westview Press, 1999), 23. 

Marcus J. Borg, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time: The Historical Jesus & 
the Heart of Contemporary Faith (New York: Harper San Francisco, 1994): "We can say 
that both "temple Judaism" and the leading renewal movements were committed to the 
paradigm of purity." (53) 



28 



This is clear in Mark's report. "John the baptizer appeared in the wilderness, preaching a 
baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. . . . Now John was clothed with camel's 
hair, and had a leather girdle around his waist, and ate locusts and wild honey." (1:4, 6) 
The traditional expression of the prophetic image above was symbolic of transition, i.e. 
remembering the Jewish prophetic traditions toward a socio-cultural change of 
relationship. 54 

Luke also introduces a prophetic message of socio-cultural transition of 

relationships in the dialogue between John and his baptismal applicants or participants: 

Bear fruits that befit repentance, . . . And the multitudes asked him, "What then 
shall we do?" And he answered them, "He who has two coats, let him share 
with him who has none; and he who has food, let him do likewise." Tax 
collectors also came to be baptized, and said to him, "Teacher, what shall we 
do?" And he said to them, "Collect no more than is appointed you." Soldiers 
also asked him, "And we, what shall we do?" And he said to them, "Rob no 
one by violence or by false accusation, and be content with your wages." (3:8, 
10-14) 

John's transitional baptism was a prophetic movement toward Jewish social justice," i.e., 

54 

A good interpretation of John's prophetic figures is made by Joseph Cisetti in 
his "A Man Sent from God" Emmanuel 100-10 (December 1994): "In Isaiah, "the 
wilderness" is part of the command while for the evangelists, it is a statement of 
geographic (and possibly theological) location. . . . Mark sees John in line with the prophet 
Elijah, describing his attire and diet in 1:6." (619-20) 

Donald Goergen, The Mission and Ministry of Jesus (Willmington: Michael 
Glazier, 1986): 

29 



symbolic of the socio-cultural change of human religious life. The transitional baptism 
was not accepted by both the Pharisees and the lawyers who advocated ecclesial or 
institutional legalism, 56 but by all other the Jewish people and the tax collectors who were 
excluded from ecclesial hierarchy and the Jewish church respectively. 

The purpose of John's transitional water baptism was the prophetic realization of 
Jewish socio-cultural desire. Then, does Jesus' baptism by John imply having such a 
baptismal purpose or meaning? The question asks us to study what Jesus' baptismal 
situations imply. There are two issues as state here. One is to make clear Jesus' intent 
or meaning of baptism. The other is to make clear his experience or phenomenon of the 
baptismal ceremony. 

First, Jesus' pre-baptismal dialogue with John implies Jesus' purpose of baptism. 



The centrality of baptisms and ritual baths in lieu of Temple sacrifices was 
common to many of the movements. . . . 

John was an ascetical and prophetic preacher of repentance who 
baptized and proclaimed the closeness of the impending judgment. (112-113) 

Luke 7:29-30 "When they heard this all the people and the tax collectors 
justified God, having been baptized with the baptism of John: but the Pharisees and the 
lawyers rejected the purpose of God for themselves, not having been baptized by him." 

See G. R. Beasley-Murray: "In him [John] the age-long traditions of ritual 
lustrations combined with prophetic anticipations of judgment and redemption and found a 
medium in the ablutions of men that looked for redemption in Israel." (44) 



30 



Matthew reports on the pre-baptismal situation: "John would have prevented him [Jesus], 
saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?" But Jesus answered him, 
"Let it be so now; for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteous."" (3:14-15) The 
dialogue shows that the purpose of Jesus' baptism was to fulfill all righteousness. What 
does "all righteous" imply? Jesus seemed to well know John the son of Zechariah as his 

CO 

cousin. Jesus believed John to be the final prophet who was educated in the wilderness 
tradition although he was a descendant of the priest by tribe. Jesus himself was 
educated in the temple or church tradition although he was born poor. 60 Luke seems to 



CO 

See Luke's chapter 1 and Joseph Cisetti, 621. 



59 Matthew 11:7-14: 



As they went away, Jesus began to speak to the crowds concerning John: "What 
did you go out into the wilderness to behold? . . .To see a prophet? Yes, I tell 
you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written. 'Behold, I send 
my messenger before thy face, who shall prepare thy way before thee.' Truly, I 
say to you, among those born of women there has risen no one greater than John 
the Baptist: yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. . . . 
For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 

Luke 1:5, 80: 

In the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest named Zechariah, of the 
division of Abijah; and he had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name 
was Elizabeth. . . . And the child [John] grew and became strong in spirit, and he 
was in the wilderness till the day of his manifestation to Israel. 

60 Luke 2:40-52: 

The child [Jesus] grew and became strong, filled with wisdom: and the favor of 
God was upon him. Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast 

31 



note that Jesus and John were educated in the different traditions, respectively: intellectual 
and socio-cultural. 61 Luke's view gives a clue about what the relational concept '"us" in 
Matthew 3:15 implies. It seems to be symbolic of all humanity, i.e. holistic humanity 
that is indivisible by traditions or socio-cultural classes, or of the very humanity, i.e. all 
intellectual and socio-cultural sides of humanity. 

Jesus declared that "all" the prophetic and legal traditions should end with 



of the Passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to 
custom; and when the feast was ended, as they were returning, the boy Jesus 
stayed behind in Jerusalem. . . . After three days they found him in the temple, 
sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions: and all 
who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. . . . Did you 
not know that I must be in my Father's house?" . . . And Jesus increased in 
wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man. 

A good commentary of Luke 2:20 is shown in The New American Bible, Saint 
Joseph ed. (Woodland Hills: Benziger Publishing Company, 1992): 

The woman who could not afford a lamb offered instead two turtledoves or two 
young pigeons, as Mary does here. . . . The law further stipulated (Nm 3, 47-48) 
that the firstborn son should be redeemed by the parents through their payment 
of five shekels to a member of a priestly family. (101) 

Luke 2:46-7 "After three days they found him [Jesus] in the temple, sitting 
among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions: and all who heard him 
were amazed at his understanding and his answers." 
Luke 3:2-14: 

The word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the wilderness: and he 
went into all the region about the Jordan, preaching a baptism of repentance for 
the forgiveness of sins. . . . 

. . . Bear fruits that befit repentance, . . . 

. . . "What then shall we do?" . . . "He who has two coats, let him share 
with him who has none; and he who has food, let him to do likewise." 



32 



John's ministry. 62 It was Jesus' judgment of two Jewish traditional ministries. And 
Jesus said that he himself would fulfill, complete, or integrate the two traditions. 
Integration of religious righteousness with socio-cultural justice would be re-created by 
Jesus himself Jesus summarized the integration in this dual human work: "You shall 
love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your 
mind. . . . You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments 
depend all the law and the prophets." (Matthew 22:37-40) Jesus' pre-baptismal dialogue 
of Matthew 3:14-15 seemed to indicate that his baptism was symbolic of completing all 
human traditions and re-creating the very humanity. In a sense, Jesus' baptism was re- 
creative baptism that aimed at the very humanity, not simply transition, rather than a 
baptism of humanity, as John's purpose: "Jesus' dual love completes the very humanity.'' 

Second, Jesus' baptismal phenomenon or experience, i.e. the baptismal presence 



an 

Matthew 11:17 "All the prophets and the law prophesied until John." See, for 
an interpretation of "all" in a concept of "perfection," Peter F. Ellis, C. S. S. R., Matthew- 
His Mind and His Message (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1974), 142-144. 

Matthew 5:17 "Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets: 
I have come not to abolish them but to fulfill them." 

The purpose of John's transitional baptism seemed to form a prophetic social 
consciousness of humanity. See, for the purpose of Jesus' baptism, Craig Blomberg, 
Jesus and the Gospels-' An Introduction and Survey (Nashville: Broadman & Holman 
Publishers, 1997): "Jesus now begins a work of re-creation." (222) 



33 



of the triune God, shows the meaning or content of his baptism as well as his imperative. 
All the gospels report the divine presence and its semantic implication or Jesus' baptism 
and its meaning. 

Mark reports a phenomenological declaration of Jesus' baptismal self- 
consciousness. 66 "When he [Jesus] came up out of the water, immediately he saw the 
heavens opened and the Spirit descending upon him like a dove; and a voice came from 
heaven, "Thou art my beloved Son; with thee I am well pleased."" (1:10-11) Mark's 
report is that Jesus' baptism was divine. The content was his divine sonship. The 
divine baptism of the earthly Jesus implies that he had an image of God, i.e., a divine 
image of humanity. Likewise, his divine sonship implies that he had the very relational 
image of God. In a sense, the meaning of Jesus' divine baptism was the very human 
image of God. 

Matthew writes a phenomenological semantics of Jesus' baptismal declaration 

When Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water, and behold, 
the heavens were opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove 

This is also to make clear the meaning of the baptism what Jesus ordered in 
Matthew 28:19 "Make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father 
and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." 

The one who experienced the divine presence was Jesus himself and the 
presence of the triune God itself is phenomenologically expressed. 

34 



and alighting on him; and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, "This is my beloved 
Son, with whom I am well pleased." (3:16-17) 

Jesus' baptism was a semantic experience of a divine phenomenon. It was the very 
experience of divine sonship. It also meant that he had the very human image of God as 
the Son of God. In a sense, the meaning of the baptism was to declare the very humanity, 
not to simply signify religious elitism or consciousness of the chosen as John's baptism 
did: Jesus with whom God was pleased had the very human image of God in the world of 
human life. 

Luke reports a religious description of Jesus' baptismal experience to help us to 



understand well its implication 



68 



Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized 
and was praying, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Spirit descended upon 
him in bodily form, as a dove, and a voice came from heaven, "Thou art my 
beloved Son; with thee I am well pleased." (3:21-22) 

The core of Luke's report is that all Jesus' phenomenological experience came from his 
religious piety of prayer. The divine experience is likely to be religiously opened to 
every people, i.e. what every religious person can experience. In a sense, Jesus' baptism 

en 

The purpose of John's water baptism seemed to be a prophetic salvific sign of 
Jewish religious elitism. The meaning of Jesus' baptism is shown in the Matthew's 
following version of declaration: "This [Jesus] is my beloved Son, with whom I [God the 
Father] am very pleased." The above version in the text is mine. 

Luke puts Jesus' baptismal experience in the same position of common 
people's religious experience. 

35 



was universal divine experience. 

John the evangelist records John the Baptist's sacred or hagiographical 
declaration of Jesus' baptismal phenomenon to help us to understand well its 



implication. 



69 



John bore witness, "I saw the Spirit descend as a dove from heaven, and it 
remained on him. I myself did not know him; but he who sent me to baptize 
with water said to me, 'He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this 
is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' And I have seen and have borne 
witness that this is the Son of God." (1:32-34) 

Jesus' baptism was to disclose his divine identity and the earthly form of the divine or the 
triune God's baptism. One point of John's report is that John the Baptist gave evidence 
that the baptism of Jesus was to reveal his divine identity. This was to mean that the 
earthly Jesus was the Son of God. The other point of John's report is that John the 
Baptist himself saw, heard, and acknowledged the earthly phenomenon of the triune God 



John the evangelist's phenomenological hagiology is made clear in recording 
Jesus' declaration of divine sonship: 

Jesus answered them [the Jews], "Is it not written in your law, i said, you are 
gods'? If he called them gods to whom the word of God came (and scripture 
cannot be broken), do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into 
the world, 'You are blaspheming,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God'? (10:24- 
36) 

John seems to emphasize Jesus' philosophy of re-creation, i.e. scientific reproduction or 
re-creation in the world of life. See, for what hagiography is, R. J. Schork's Joyce and 
Hagiography: Saints Above! ' (Gainsville: University Press of Florida, 2000). 



36 



during Jesus' baptism. That is to say, the baptism of Jesus itself was the earthly presence 
of the triune God. In a sense, Jesus' baptism was to declare the earthly form of divine 
baptism. 

Only Matthew reports the baptismal formula that Jesus ordered. "Go therefore 
and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you." (28:19- 
20) Jesus ordered his disciples that their universal-holistic ministry should be preceded 
by the triune baptism. This formula clues us in on how we should understand the 
earthly form of Jesus' divine baptism. It was that Jesus' baptism should be understood as 
the earthly declaration of the triune God. Likewise, his order to baptize in the name of 
the triune God seemed to imply remembering and re-creating the very human image of 



70 

I insist that "the triune baptism" should be the real baptism Jesus himself 
ordered. The triune baptism should be held by one of the baptized whenever someone 
whoever he or she is in age and race wants to be baptized in the triune name even though 
where baptismal water cannot be found there. The Triune name here should be 
understood as the only condition of the ceremony. It should be also the perfect content 
as well as the full meaning of the triune baptism. I am sure that the triune baptism Jesus 
ordered should be held without restriction of time, place, age, and race. In a sense, the 
triune baptism seemed to be a kind of "open baptism." I believe that the formula should 
be: "Baptize you, (name), in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." 
See also, for a meaning of baptism, Marianne Micks: "The royal priesthood of all 
believers through baptism is a priesthood set apart for worship and service. . . . Not all 
baptized persons recognize the fact that by virtue of their baptism they are chief ministers 
of the church." (89) 



37 



God according to the Trinity, i.e., the very human relationship or humanity according to 
Jesus' re-creation-divine baptism. 

Then, what was Jesus' re-creation-divine baptism in light of his ministry? 
Matthew's report of Jesus' imperative lets us assume that the baptism should be a pre- 
ministerial task. Luke also reports Jesus' baptism at the very beginning of his universal 
ministry. Jesus' baptism, whether what he himself experienced or what he ordered, 
seemed to be a pre-ministerial baptism. In a sense, Jesus' pre-ministerial baptism is an 
important clue for understanding his purpose of ministry. 



3. Jesus' Purpose of Ministry 

The object of Jesus' ministry was all the Jews and all the nations, i.e., the 
universe. Jesus said, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." (Matthew 
15:24) The lost sheep seemed to indicate "sinners." 73 The reason should be simply 



7 1 

"Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been 
baptized . . . Jesus, when he began his ministry, was about thirty years of age, being the 
son (as was supposed) of Joseph, ... the son of Adam, the son of God." (3:21-23, 38) 

72 

T. Manson, The Servant-Messiah-' A Study of the Public Ministry of Jesus (New 
York: Cambridge at the University Press, 1967), 65. 

73 

"I came not to call the righteous, but sinners." (Matthew 9:13, Mark 2:17) 



38 



explained by mentioning the same semantic structure. 74 Why Jesus came to the earth 
was that he had an object: the lost sheep or sinners. The lost sheep of the house of Israel 
should be the Jews. Who were the sinners? Luke reports what sin implied for the 
Pharisees. ' "A woman of the city, who was a sinner, when she learned that he [Jesus] 
was sitting at table in the Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster flask of ointment." (7:37) 
The sin for the Jews was socio-culturally recognizable. Many socio-cultural outcasts 



Compare the two sentences: 
Matthew 15:24 "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." 
Matthew 9:13 "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners." 

See, for useful information about Pharisees, The New American Bible'- 

PHARISEES. A religious sect of the Jews that numbered bout 6000 in the time 
of Christ. Originating in the days of the Greek conquest of Palestine, they 
sought above all to preserve the Jews from the contamination of foreign religion, 
and to this end insisted upon strict separation from the Gentiles. They insisted 
also on strict loyalty to the Scriptures and to the traditions of the rabbis. 
Among many Pharisaic hedges about the law, ceremonial purity and payment of 
religious dues were emphasized. ... By the time of Christ their primitive zeal 
had degenerated into fanaticism and hypocrisy. They took a leading part in the 
opposition to Christ, and he scathingly rebuked their insincerity (Mt 23, 25; Lk 
11, 39; 18, 9-14). (419) 

See also Halvor Moxnes on the Pharisees in Luke's Gospel in his The Economy of 
the Kingdom' Social Conflict and Economic Relations in Luke's Gospel (Philadelphia: 
Fortress Press, 1988): 

The Pharisees dominate the scene outside of Jerusalem, starting with 
Galilee. . . . 

. . . The Pharisees are shown in a much broader perspective with a 
larger social role to pray. . . . They play an important role in the social and 
economic life of the village communities. (18-21) 

An old Jewish definition of sin is shown in The New American Bible- 



39 



were included in this category. Another report in Luke shows that this was the Jewish 
reality. "Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing rear to hear him [Jesus]. 
And the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, "This man receives sinners and eats 
with them. , " , (15:1-2) Luke's use of the parallel conjunction "and" between each two 
groups seemed to indicate Jewish socio-cultural consciousness. The leading Jews did not 
seem to think that they themselves were sinners. However, Jesus disagreed. "Jesus said 
to them [the Pharisees], "If you were blind, you would have no guilt; but now that you say, 
'We see,' your guilt remains." (John 9:41) 

In addition to his explicit language, the gospels report that the object of his 
ministry was beyond salvation of the Jews even in his actual ministry. The appearances 

• 77 

of gentiles on his ministerial stages prove such a fact. ' For example, Matthew reports 

that a gentile centurion appeared on the stage of Jesus' healing ministry: 

As he [Jesus] entered Capernaum, a centurion came forward to him, 
beseeching him and saying, "Lord, my servant is lying paralyzed at home, in 

SIN. In the Old Testament sin is not so much a wrong action in one's 
conscience as something which disrupts the order of the world wished by God, 
and particularly the covenant fixed by the law. Thus the Israelite did not search 
himself for deep causes or establish its relationship with original sin; it is 
necessary to wait for the book of Wisdom to find such an allusion (2, 24). (421) 

77 

See the following verses: Matthew 8:5-13 [a gentile centurion], 15:21-28 la 
Canaanite woman], Mark 7:24-30 [a Greek~Syrophoenician woman], and Luke 7:2-10 la 
gentile centurion]. 

40 



terrible distress." . . . When Jesus heard him, he marveled, and said to those who 
followed him, "Truly, I say to you, not even in Israel have I found such faith. I 
tell you, many will come from east and west and sit at table with Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven, . . . And to the centurion Jesus said, "Go; be 
it done for you as you have believed." And the servant was healed at that very 
moment. (8:5-13) 

Moreover, Matthew reports that Jesus' object of ministry was ultimately "all nations." 
(28:19) The object is also expressed by "the whole creation" in Mark 16:15. Luke 
gives us two reasons: the human image of God and the scriptural record. The former is: 
"Jesus, when he began his ministry, was about thirty years of age, being the son (as was 
supposed) of Joseph, ... the son of God." (3:23, 38) Its logical implication should be: 



Every ministry based on God's creation is universal. 
Jesus' ministry was based on the image of God. 

Therefore, Jesus' ministry was universal. 
Yes, what Luke noted is that Jesus' ministry was universal since all human beings 

"7Q 

commonly have the image of God. J The latter, the scriptural record, implies that "all 



no 

Richard Jeffrey, 66. The Modus Ponens (or "Detachment") means: If p then q, 
P, therefore q. 

Mark gives us a useful report of what Jesus' universal ministry meant: "He 
[Jesus] said to them [the Pharisees], "The sabbath was made for man, not man for the 
sabbath; so the Son of man is lord even of the Sabbath."" (2:27-28) John gives us two 
decisive theological logics of Jesus' ministry: universal logics of rebirth and naming. The 
universal logic of rebirth will be: 

Every one who is born of God has power to become a child of God. 

41 



nations" as Jesus' object of ministry was the will of God. (Luke 24:47) The object of 
Jesus' ministry, in a sense, was the universe or all human beings even though the main 
stage of his activities was the Jewish regions. In other words, the purpose of his ministry 
was universal to be accomplished by his disciples' ministry. 

Then, what was Jesus' universal purpose of ministry in the world of life? Jesus 
seemed to note the wrong understanding of humanity and to teach how to read and re- 
create the very or original humanity: "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love our 

Every disciple is born of God (in the image of the triune God). 

Therefore, every disciple has power to become a child of God (in divine image). 

This is my paraphrase of John 1:12- 13: "To all who received him, who believed in his 
name, he gave power to become children of God; who were born, not of blood nor of the 
will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God." The other universal logic of naming 
will be: 

Whoever receives the word of God is a god. 

Every disciple receives the word of God (in the name of Jesus Christ). 

Therefore, every disciple is a god (in name). 

This is also my paraphrase of John 10:34-35 "Jesus answered them [the Jews], "Is it not 
written in your law, T said, you are gods'? If he called them gods to whom the word of 
God came (and scripture cannot be broken)." 

on 

It should be what systematic theologians have called the theory of universal 
salvation. "God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world 
might be saved through him." (John 3:17) Jesus clearly said such his purpose of ministry. 
"I [Jesus] did not come to judge the world but to save the world." (John 12:47) John 
again reports the universal purpose of Jesus' ministry in light of worship: "Jesus said to 
her [the Samaritan woman], "Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this 
mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. You worship what you do not 
know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews." (4:21-22) 

42 



neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those 
who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven.' 1 (Matthew 
5:43-45) Jesus, here in fact, declared that there was no image of God without the world 
of socio-cultural life. The exclusive Jewish humanity distorted the human image of God 
or the original humanity. 81 The world of human life should be changed to re-create the 
very humanity. In other words, the purpose of Jesus' universal ministry was re-creation 
of the very humanity. It was "to be like God, to image and to reveal the divine in 



Q 1 

The New American Bible- 
There is no Old Testament commandment demanding hatred of one's enemy, but 
the "neighbor" of the love commandment was understood as one's fellow 
countryman. Both in the Old Testament (Ps 139, 19-22) and at Qumran (1QS 9, 
21) hatred of evil persons is assumed to be right. (18) 

82 

Raymond A. Martin.' 

According to Borg, in Jesus' view, our goal in life should be to live in imitation of 
God, who Jesus believed is compassionate. Jesus' main message was, "Be 
compassionate, as God is compassionate." . . . The dominant view was, "Be holy, 
as God is holy." Jesus, in effect, proposed that holiness, as an ideal, be 
replaced by compassion. (123) 

See, for a theological concept of re-creation, New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2d ed. 
vol. 7, s.v. "Image of God": "The image of God that is in man by reason of his intellectual 
nature can be perfected by the "image of re-creation" that is GRACE, and, finally, by the 
"image of glory" (St. Thomas, Summa theologiae, la, 93.4)." (322) 

Herman Harrell Home presents the purpose in a philosophical meaning of 
salvation: "Salvation is wholeness of life, and the whole life in right relationship to God." 
(42) 



43 



human life" as Donald P. Gray says. 

John epistemologically or spiritually writes about Jesus' purpose of ministry: u To 
all who received him [Jesus], who believed in his name, he gave power to become 
children of God; who were bom, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of 
man, but of God." (1:12-13) A way becoming a child of God was to be born of the will 
of God. What was John's premise? It was that there was no one who was not a child of 
God since every human being was originally made in the image of God. In a sense, the 
purpose of Jesus' ministry was to re-create a child of God or human image of God. 

What was the content of re-creation? The following verses of Matthew provide 
an answer: "He [Father] makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on 
the just and on the unjust. . . . love . . . salute . . . You, therefore, must be perfect, as your 
heavenly Father is perfect." (5:45-48) The content of re-creation was the divine law of 
relationship, not a natural law. " It was the divine law of love for Jesus. Only the 



OA 

Donald P. Gray, Jesus- The Way to Freedom (Winona: Saint Mary's Press, 
1984), 69. 

or 

An ethical definition of natural law is made by Stephen Mott in his Jesus and 
Social Ethics, Grove Booklet on Ethics no. 55 (Bramcote: Grove Books, 1984): "Natural 
law reflects the conviction that moral obligation should correspond to the nature of the 
world as God created and maintained it." (22) Naturalized moral obligation implies seeing 
human beings as the naturals not as being created in God's image, i.e., that it is natural 
that one should discriminate one's companions, human beings, according to their socio- 
cultural positions, classes, or races. 

44 



divine law can reproduce the image of God in perfect human form. In a sense, the 
content of re-creation meant the divine law or the very human image of God in the world 
of socio-cultural life. Donald P. Gray's view is very helpful in understanding the content: 
"The process of humanization, the process of entering into the rich possibilities of our 
humanity, is ultimately to be seen as a process of divinization, a becoming like God 
himself, a living of the life of God himself" 87 

In short, Jesus' purpose of ministry was to teach all of us how to re-create 
humanity or how to live in the image of God according to the divine law. This gives us a 
clue for rightly understanding Jesus' imperative in Matthew: "Go therefore and make 
disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with 



A philosophical definition of natural law is given by Richard M. Gula in his Reason 
Informed By Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality (New York-' Paulist Press, 1989): 
"From these understandings of "natural" and "law" we can put together a synthetic 
definition which reflects the core of the Catholic natural law tradition: natural law is 
reason reflecting on human experience discovering moral value." (241) Human 
experiential reason is to remain in its natural community not to create a new community. 

86 Matthew 19:17-21: 

"If you would enter life, keep the commandments." He said to him [Jesus], 
"What?" And Jesus said, "You shall not kill, You shall not commit adultery, You 
shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness. Honor your father and mother, 
and, You shall love your neighbor as yourself." . . . "If you would be perfect.*' 

87 Donald P. Gray, 69. 



45 



you always, to the close of the age." (28:19-20) The purpose of ministry that Jesus 
ordered was to make "disciples of all nations." It was to re-create all nations, i.e the 

no , 

world, as disciples. It referred to the world under the image of God, since disciples 
should be re-created in the world of human life or according to Jesus' socio-cuitural image 
of life, i.e., his holistic life. 89 That is to say, to make disciples of all nations implies re- 
creating the world of human life in Jesus' vision. 



4. Conclusion 

The purpose of ministry cannot be separated from the meaning of baptism As 



oo 

"Disciples" means "followers" in the Gospels. See the following verses: 
Matthew 4:19 "He [Jesus] said to them [Simon Peter and Andrew], "Follow me, and I will 
make you fishers of men." Mark 1:17 "Jesus said to them [Simon and Andrew], "Follow 
me and I will make you become fishers of men," Luke 5:11 "When they [James, John, and 
Simon] had brought their boats to land, they left everything and followed him [Jesus]." 
and John 1:37 "The two disciples [two disciples of John's disciples] heard him [John] say 
this ["Behold, the Lamb of God!"], and they followed Jesus." 

See Timothy E. O'Connell, Principles for a Catholic Morality, revised ed. (New 
York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1990): 

They [Disciples] were to be learners (matheiteis), followers ready and willing to 
learn from the teacher, they were to follow him, remain with him, become loyal 
to him. . . . But in his [Jesus] case the notion of discipleship took on several 
interesting nuances. 

First, discipleship meant the simple fact of following after the Lord. . . . 

... a second meaning that discipleship had for Jesus: the idea that the 
disciples was to replace Jesus, act on his behalf, take on a mission for the sake 
of the Lord. (40-41) 



46 



seen in the above discussion, baptism is symbolic of remembering God's image and 
reflecting human socio-cultural consciousness, implies re-creating or transforming 
humanity, and means beginning a new life, relationship, and ministry. 

Baptism for Jesus was symbolic of remembering the triune image of God as his 
baptismal phenomenon implied. It was neither the same movement of Jewish religious 
exclusivism or elitism as John's prophetic elitism represented nor was it intended to form 
the church. 90 It was rather an answer to human spiritual desire or spirituality that was 
based on the world of Jewish socio-cultural life. 91 In a sense, it was symbolic of 
reflecting both Jesus' consciousness and human socio-cultural consciousness or spirit. 



See, for an Anglican point of view of the baptism, Fredrica Harris Thompsett, 
"The Primacy of Baptism: A Reaffirmation of Authority in the Church," in Beyond Colonial 
Anglicanism-' The Anglican Communion in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Ian T. 
Douglas and Kwok Pui-Lan (New York: Church Publishing Incorporated, 2001): 

The formative identity conveyed in baptism provides the foundational and 
sustaining base for exercising authority within the local church and the world. . . . 
The primacy of baptism provides an ecclesiological identity for Anglican 
authority. ... It is important to observe that the formative ecclesiological 
character of baptism has at least been taken for granted when it comes to 
hierarchical consideration of authority. (251) 

I do not agree on the closed position of the baptism in a hierarchic and 
institutional system. I also believe that this concept of the church is opposed to Jesus' 
one: "I do not pray for these only, but also for those who are to believe in me through 
their word." (John 17:30) In short, the church is to be composed of the baptized or 
disciples or potential disciples. 

See, for an understanding of the baptism in the world of life, John P. Meier. 
The Mission of Christ and His Church: Studies in Christology and Ecclesiology 
(Wilmington: Michael Glazier, Inc., 1990), 159. 

47 



Baptism for Jesus implied that humanity should be re-created in integration of 
diverse traditions or cultures according to the will of God. It was not simply a symbol of 
transition as John's baptism was. 9 " Jesus' baptism was the pre-stage of ministry, while 
for John the Baptist it was his ministry itself or ministerial content. I have called Jesus' 
baptism "pre-ministerial baptism," by which I mean that dual human love of God and 
neighbor should be a way to complete the very humanity. 

Ministry for Jesus was neither Jewish ecclesial nor prophetic. Moreover, the 

no 

purpose of Jesus' ministry was neither to serve the church nor the kingdom itself. " As 
implied in dealing with his baptism, it was universal and divine. It was to imply that all 
human beings who are created in the image of God should be re-created according to the 



92 

See, for a clue that John's baptism was symbolic, New Catholic Encyclopedia, 
vol. 2, s. v. "Baptism in the Bible," 54. 

Some scholars would insist that the purpose of ministry is to build the church. 
An example is shown in The Church for Disciples of Christ: Seeking to Be Truly Church 
Today- "Disciples of Christ have always believed that ministry belongs to the Church as a 
whole." (109) However, I do not agree on the position. My starting point of the church 
to the contrary is that "Ministry forms the church." Jesus did not see ministry in the 
Judaic church but the church in ministry. 

Others would insist that the purpose of ministry is to build the kingdom on the 
earth. However, why can such an institution be the God' one? If some liberation 
theologians would take the position, I want to say them that the kingdom is only a means 
to heal human dialogical relationship as Jesus' preaching ministry implied. In short, the 
church and the kingdom of God are for human ministry or true relationship. 



48 



triune image of God and the divine law of love or mercy. 94 That is to say, its purpose 
was re-creating universal humanity. 

Ministry for Jesus was also about "a way of life," as Marcus Borg rightly sees: " 
"Moreover, for Jesus compassion was not simply an individual virtue, but a sociopolitical 
paradigm expressing his alternative vision of human life in community, a vision of life 
embodied in the movement that came into existence around him." (47) What Borg 
emphasizes here is that Jesus noted human socio-cultural circumstances to live or re-create 
divine image of humanity. That is to say, the purpose of ministry for Jesus meant "re- 
creation" of the divine image of humanity in the world of human socio-cultural life. 



See Philip Cunningham, Jesus and the Evangelists: The Ministry of Jesus and 
Its Portrayal in the Synoptic Gospels (New York: Paulist Press, 1988): 

For Jesus it was not primarily a day of judgment which was dawning, but the 
arrival of the fullness of God's merciful forgiveness and love. Instead of 
chastising the people of God to reform their sinful pasts, Jesus exhorted his 
kinsfolk to be reconciled to each other and to reflect God's divine mercy and 
loving kindness in their daily lives. (160) 

Marcus J. Borg, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time: The Historical Jesus & 
The Heart of Contemporary Faith (New York: Harper San Francisco, 1994), 54. 

49 



CHAPTER B 
DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY 
TEMPTATION AND MINISTERIAL METHOD 



1. Introduction 

Korean ministry today can be understood in a popular slogan, "mission and 
ministry," or "evangelism and education." The slogan also reflects the dominant Korean 
interpretation today of "the great commission." It is a missiological interpretation of 
Jesus' imperative. (Matthew 28:19-20) The interpretation divides the commission or the 

96 

imperative into two sentences. 



Sentence 1: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." (28:19) 

Sentence 2: "Teach them [the disciples] to observe all that I [Jesus] have commanded 
you." (28:20) 

The first sentence has been understood as a missiological or evangelical 



See, for a two-stage interpretation of the Great Commission, Joseph Jungyol 
Chang, Missions and Church Growth-' An Introduction to Missioiogy, Korean ed. (Seoul: 
Sung Kwang Publishing Co., 1995), 78. 

50 



command. The understanding reflects a Korean ideological or political method and 
philosophy of field ministry, s even though it is called to mission or evangelism The 
field ministry aims at changing from the state of nature into the controlled state by the 
church. The ministry field seems to have two assumptions: dualism and logic of 
edification. The dualism means that the outside the church is identified with the object 
of missionary edification. The logic means the assumption that the church has the right 
and duty to edify the outside world of the church. 

Mission or evangelism has been considered as a task outside the church's pivotal 
ministry. It has been identified with making disciples of all nations outside the church or 
with baptizing them. It is understood as a mandate for Christianization of the world, 
since national discipleship is considered to imply that a nation has come under Christian 
politics or ideology. 

Likewise, baptism here means a religious conversion or declaration that a 



97 t^ 

Field ministry, which I coin, is to reflect the fact that mission or evangelism has 
been considered as an outside work of Korean ministry. The field is symbolic of the 
outside the church which is under the natural state. The ministry is symbolic of control 
and rule of the church, i.e., putting under the ministerial order. 



National discipleship, which I coin, is a functional interpretation of the field 



ministry. 



51 



converter has come under the world of Christian politics or ideology. ' Such baptismal 
implication has justified discriminative treatments of non-Christians in the world of 
political or ideological life. 100 It has also used the name of the triune God as religious 



See, for a concept of religious conversion, Francis Schussler Fiorenza's 
"Systematic Theology: Task and Methods," in Systematic Theology-Roman Catholic 
Perspectives, vol. 1., edited by Francis Schussler Fiorenza and John P. Galvin 
(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991): 

Religious conversion, like intellectual and moral conversion, entails self- 
transcendence. Religious conversion, however, goes beyond the self- 
transcendence of intellectual and moral conversion insofar as it is constituted by 
that self-transcendence entailed in the shift to ultimate meaning and value. . . . 
Religious conversion is not simply a matter of becoming religious, but is rather a 
total reorientation of one's life. (50) 

I believe that the following baptismal formula gives the cause of ministerial or 
evangelical evil, i.e., the minister the misunderstanding of the baptism that the baptizer 
has the right and duty to edify or control the not-baptized: "By the authority of Jesus 
Christ, I [baptizer] baptize you, [Name], in the name of the Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Spirit. Amen." See, for this formula, The Church for Disciples of Christ'. 
Seeking to Be Truly Church Today by edited by Paul A. Crow, Jr., and James 0. Duke (St. 
Louis: Christian Board of Publication, 1998), 133. We should not add "I" to the original 
formula of Jesus Christ: "Baptize, [Name], in the name of the Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Spirit." (Matthew 28:19) 

Franz J. Hinkelammert gives us an insightful analysis of discrimination or of 
the controlled state of the Third World by the economic tool of Capitalism through his 
macroscopic analysis. I note his insight of de-humanization of discrimination since the 
church's discriminatory ministry cannot also avoid such a result. See, for the three 
theses to see his insight, Franz J. Hinkelammert's "Changes in the Relationships between 
Third World Countries and First World Countries," in Spirituality of the Third World edited 
by K. C. Abraham and Bernadette Mbuy-Beya (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994): 

Consequently, we have three theses: 1) Capitalism once again becomes wild 
capitalism ... 2) The Third World is economically necessary for the rich 
countries but its population is not needed. 3) The rich countries consider 
development based on industrial integration in the world market as a threat: the 
foreign debt of the Third World works as an instrument to regulate control and 
eventually block this type of development. (14-15) 

52 



justification for militant ministry, mission, or evangelism. That is to say, the mission or 
evangelism here has been considered to be the exclusive political foundation or base, not 
the starting point of ministry. 

Roger S. Gottlieb's insight of the connection between politics and religion gives 
us a good example. 101 Today, Christianization can be identified with democratization. 
Such an understanding can promote a practical, political, or ideological interpretation and 
meaning of Christian community. That is to say, it can contribute to the development of 
human relationship, life, and image as well as of the church ministry on the one hand. 
However, it can be a control tool when the concept of democracy is adopted as a standard 
to evangelize a nation on the other hand. What I note here is the ideological or political 
method and philosophy that discriminates between "they" and "we," "enemies" and 
"neighbors," or "non-Christian nations" and "Christian nations." Are their distinctions 



My point here is that the baptizer, the church, and the Christianized nation distort 
human relationship, life, and image, working under the two assumptions of the field 
ministry: dualism and logic of edification. 

Roger S. Gottlieb, Joining Hands-' Politics and Religion Together for Social 
Change (Cambridge: Westview Press, 2002): 

Now, however, the church's acceptance of democracy is taken for granted. Yet 
the innovative idea of popular government did not emerge from the church but 
from secular political movements. As a religion, it had needed politics to make 
the change, and in this case, a particular type of progressive, world-making 
politics. (50) 



53 



not evidence of a discriminatory ministry and a philosophy of discrimination 9 

The second sentence has been accepted as a ministerial or educational command: 
"Teach the disciples to observe all that I [Jesus] have commanded you." The 
understanding reflects a Korean socio-cultural method and philosophy of ministry, not 
simply an educational implication, since it implies teaching those who are "already 
Christians." The ministry or education basically here is to teach Christians moral and/or 
intellectual life, since it emphasizes "teaching" rather than "all." It has meant the 
teaching of Jesus' or the Christian lifestyle and order or value system, since Christian 
maturity can be realized in the world of socio-cultural life through the agency of a moral 
or intellectual conversion. The teaching however in fact means establishing the 

relation of teacher and student. What here I note is the hierarchical or up-and-down 
relationship, or the intelligence-laden order that one-sidedly controls human relationship, 



See Francis Schussler Fiorenza's "Systematic Theology: Task and Methods" 
for concepts of moral and intellectual conversions. 

Intellectual conversion entails a decision and a movement of self-transcendence, 
for knowing entails a complex and reflective human operation of continued 
questioning for evidence, reasons, and comprehensive viewpoints. . . . Moral 
conversion entails opting for what one judges to be truly of value and good, even 
when value and satisfaction conflict. . . . Moral conversion is a form of self- 
transcendence and can be related to cognitive, moral, and effective development. 
(50) 



54 



language, and thought. Does the church's intelligence-laden ministry today not deny the 
whole humanity or human relationship? 

I have experienced the Korean discriminatory and intelligence-laden ministry 
firsthand. I have lived in many concentric circles of "we." They were to indicate the 
lines of limitations on discrimination. I was taught to obey the church's hierarchical 
order and not to acknowledge beings outside the circle as "neighbors."-Such a philosophy 
of Korean ministry distorted human relationships and denied the full humanity of all 
persons. I think that this distortion and denial reflected the Korean understanding of 
Jesus' method and philosophy of ministry. In other words, Korean ministry needs a new 
understanding of "Jesus' method and philosophy of ministry" to re-create the very 
humanity and human relationship. 

I will note Jesus' "temptation" 103 and ministerial "events" 104 to make clear my 
understanding of his method and philosophy of ministry. 105 His temptation is an 



103 See Luke 4:1-13, Mark 1:12-13, and Matthew 4:1-11. 

I will note Jesus' fellowship, preaching, and healing events of ministry. My 
methodological understanding of Jesus' ministerial events comes from Luke 10:8-9 
"Whenever you enter a town and they receive you, eat . . . heal . . . and say to them." 

See, for one scholar of those who agree with me on Jesus' ministry, Peter F. 
Ellis, C.S.S.R., Matthew: His Mind and His Message (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 

1974): 



55 



important clue for understanding his ministerial method. It seems to symbolize how his 
ministry would unfold in the world of socio-cultural life. In a sense, I will study the 
implication of his ministerial method, doing a socio-cultural analysis 106 of the Temptation 

Jesus' ministerial events in the gospels can be simplified into his fellowship, 
preaching, and healing processes or relationships. This course of ministry was to make 
clear his socio-cultural significance of ministry. In a sense, I will study deeply the 
ministerial method itself from a socio-cultural point of view. 

To explain a method of ministry is to articulate its philosophy. It implies that a 
philosophy forms its method. Jesus' method of ministry in this sense should be 



If it is true, as some have suggested, that Matthew is using here a literary form 
or device, known from the Targums, according to which a great man at the 
beginning of his career is shown in a vision the significance of his whole life, 
then the narratives of the baptism and the temptation are meant by Matthew to 
present Jesus' whole life as an example of the perfect doing of God's will. (142- 
143) 

"Socio-cultural" means traditional and politico-economic sides in the world of 
socio-cultural life. A socio-cultural analysis can be semantically identified with a holistic 
analysis since the socio-cultural analysis enables us both to reproduce or re-create a 
hopeful or desirable reality and to avoid a tragic reality in the world of life. 

A definition of "social" is provided by Joe Holland and Peter Henriot, S. J., in their 
Social Analysis' Linking Faith and Justice, revised and enlarged ed. (Maryknoll: Dove 
Communications and Orbis Books, 1996): "The term "society" came to dominance with the 
modern "social question" and the rise of the modern social sciences. It focuses on 
economics and politics." (xii) 

A definition of "cultural" is also provided by Joe Holland and Peter Henriot, S. J.: 
"The term "civilization," by contrast ["society"!, belongs more to deeper tradition in the 
west. "Civilization" connotes greater emphasis on culture, and, within culture, on 
religion." (xii) 



56 



explained by his philosophy. I will make clear a definition of Jesus' ministry from a 
philosophical point of view. My research areas will be limited to the gospels: Matthew, 
Mark, Luke, and John. 



2. Jesus' Temptation from a Socio-Cultural Point of View 

Jesus' temptation seems to show the process of making clear his position of 
ministerial method in the world of socio-cultural life. (Luke 4:1-13, Mark 1:12-13, and 
Matthew 4:1-11) Synoptic records of the temptation are situated immediately before the 
beginning of his ministry. Both Matthew and Mark record that the time of the temptation 
occurred in advance of his ministry, which started as soon as John the Baptist (in 
Matthew) or John the baptizer (in Mark) was arrested. The record implies that the 
temptation should be an important clue to understand Jesus' ministry. 

What was Jesus' ministry? Luke records that it was about a divine method of 
ministry: "If you are the Son of God." (4:3, 9) The title of the temptation could be Jesus' 



1 H7 

Matthew 4:12-17 "Now when he [Jesus] heard that John had been arrested, 
he withdrew into Galilee; . . . From that time Jesus began to preach, saying, "Repent, for 
the kingdom of heaven is at hand."" Mark 1:14-15 "Now after John was arrested, Jesus 
came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of God, and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the 
kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel."" 



57 



preparation of a divine ministerial method. And the process of Jesus was very successful 
and official or public in the Jewish context, according to Luke: "Jesus returned in the 
power of the Spirit into Galilee, and a report concerning him went out through all the 
surrounding country. And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all." (4:14- 
15) In a sense, the temptation is an important clue for understanding Jesus' ministerial 
method. 

What was the context of the temptation? All synoptic records say that the 
temptation of Jesus took place in the wilderness for forty days. (Matthew 4: 1-2, Mark 1 : 13, 
and Luke 4:2) "The wilderness" implies that the temptation was in the natural state, or 
the world under the natural law. "The forty days" also implies that the temptation was 
basically religious and significant in meaning. 108 And moreover, it seems to be clear that 
the wilderness for Jews symbolized a kind of a natural world including the world of 
Jewish religion, i.e. a world of life or the world of socio-cultural life, from the 
implications of the two basic concepts: the wilderness and the forty days. That is to say, 



1 08 

See, for the religious meaning of the forty days, The New American Bible, 
Saint Joseph ed. (Woodland Hills: Benziger Publishing Company, 1992): "Forty days and 
forty nights'- the same time as that during which Moses remained on Sinai (Ex 24; 18). 
The time reference, however, seems primarily intended to recall the forty years during 
which Israel was tempted in the desert (Dt 8, 2)." (15) 



58 



the context of the temptation seemed to indicate the world of socio-cultural life. 

What is its implication? What did the context mean for Jesus 9 The world of 
socio-cultural life can be considered as a kind of a natural world, since every human 
comes and grows in the world of socio-cultural customs, which works as the law of the 
jungle for the survival of the fittest. This human strength for survival expresses itself 
socio-culturally in terms of careerism, intellectualism, materialism and so on. The world 
of socio-cultural life, however, does not work merely under its customs as the world of 
nature works. Rather, the world of human life exists between the worlds of divine socio- 
cultural life and devilish socio-cultural life. In a sense, synoptic records say that the 
wilderness was a battlefield between the Holy Spirit and the devil. Luke, for example, 
reports, "Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit 
for forty days in the wilderness, tempted by the devil. " (4:1-2) In other words, the 
temptation shows that the ministerial method in Jesus' mind was basically divine in the 
world of socio-cultural life. 

What was the content of the temptation? And what was its implication 9 A 
process of questions and answers, i.e. dialogue, comes basically from two different 
viewpoints or logics concerning one issue. This seems to be a clue for understanding the 

59 



content of the temptation. The content of the temptation seems to be composed of two 
methodological logics of ministry in the world of socio-cultural life: Jesus' and the devil's. 
The two logics dealt with divine method of ministry in a common form. Both of them 
questioned and answered each other in the name of God or in the form of "it is written." 
The devil's form of questioning Jesus, "If you are the Son of God," implies "in the name 
of God." (Luke 4:3, 9 and Matthew 4:3, 6) The latter form, "it is written," which both 
Jesus and the devil quoted, also implies that the common issue was the divine method of 
ministry. (Matthew 4:4, 6-7, 10, and Luke 4:4, 8, 10) The devil here was a questioner 
and Jesus was a respondent. 

Matthew's record of the temptation is composed of the tempter's questions or 
challenges and Jesus' answers: "The tempter came and said to him [Jesus], . . But he 
[Jesus] answered, . . . Then the devil took him . . . and said to him, . . . Jesus said to 
him, . . . Again, the devil took him . . . and he said to him, . . . Then Jesus said to him." 
(4:3-10) Luke also records the content in the same form of questions and answers: "The 
devil said to him [Jesus], . . . And Jesus answered him, . . . And the devil took him and 
said to him, . . . And Jesus answered him, . . . And he [the devil] took him . . . and said to 
him, . . . And Jesus answered him." (4:3-12) Jesus' answer or logic, therefore, was 

60 



passive, or defensive. The answering form, however, implies that Jesus' ministerial 
method was already programmed by God's will. Matthew records, "He [Jesus] answered, 
"It is written, 'Men shall ...'"... Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, You 
shall . . .'" . . . Then Jesus said to him, ..."... it is written, 'You shall . . .'" (4:4-10) 
Luke's record also shows that the ministerial method of Jesus was already programmed 
under the God's will, in the same literary form. (4:4-12) 

What was the content of Jesus' temptation? And what was its implication 9 The 
temptation says that Jesus provided a clear threefold-logic of his ministerial method in the 
world of socio-cultural life. The method was Jesus' response to the threefold 
relationship or image in the world of socio-cultural life that the tempter presented as a so- 
called divine method of ministry. The first temptation the tempter asked Jesus to perform 
as a so-called divine method of ministry was in answer to the food problem that is 
symbolized as a table relationship or manners in the world of socio-cultural life. 
Matthew records, "He [Jesus] fasted forty days and forty nights, and afterward he was 
hungry. And the tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command 
those stones to become loaves of bread."' (4:2-3) What here the tempter noted seemed 
not to be Jesus' hunger itself, but his religious practice itself. 

61 



Luke's record also implies that Jesus' physical hunger came from his religious 
program of a forty-day fast. "He [Jesus] ate nothing in those days [forty days]; and when 
they were ended, he was hungry." (4:2) The tempter's request, "Make those stones 
bread," implies that religion dominated economics at that time. This shows ihat such a 
Jewish practice of religion had been considered as a so-called divine method of ministry in 
the world of Jewish socio-cultural life. Marcus J. Borg gives us a decisive clue for 



understanding the Jewish implication of the tempter's request. 



109 



At the center of the purity system were the temple and the 
priesthood. . . . Moreover, the income of both temple and priests (and Levites) 
depended upon the observance of purity laws by others. . . . Tithing was closely 
linked to purity; untithed produce was thus impure and would not be purchased 
by the observant. So temple and priesthood had economic as well as religious 
interests in the purity system. . . . 

. . . The meal was a microcosm of the social system, table fellowship an 
embodiment of social vision. (52, 55) 

It seems to be clear that Jewish economics or the food problem in the world of socio- 
cultural life was under the Jewish exclusive system or method of ministry. The first 
temptation in a sense shows that Jesus was before a closed self-satisfied system of the 
socio-cultural life world, i.e., the Jewish exclusive method of ministry. 



Marcus J. Borg, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time-' The Historical Jesus 
& the Heart of the Contemporary Faith (New York: Harper San Francisco, 1994). 

62 



What problem did the first temptation have? It presumes a socio-cultural 
division of human beings or relationships in the so-called name of God, as Marcus J Borg 

writes: 

To sum up, the effect of the purity system was to create a world with 
sharp social boundaries: between pure and impure, righteous and sinner, whole 
and not whole, male and female, rich and poor, Jew and Gentile. . . . 

. . . Rules surrounding meals were deeply embedded in the purity 
system. . . . Refusing to share a meal was a form of social ostracism. Pharisees 
(and others) would not eat with somebody who was impure, and no decent person 
would share a meal with an outcast. (52, 55) 

Given the first temptation, Jesus could not avoid diverse socio-cultural exclusivism: 
sexism, classism, racism and so on. Human relationship here should be ordered 
according to the law of the jungle and limited according to diverse positions or hierarchy. 
The human relationship degraded humanity or human dignity under the natural law and in 
the so-called name of God. 110 It also distorted the human image according to the power- 
laden order. The two points seemed to be socio-cultural implications of the first 
temptation or Jewish exclusive ministerial method at table. 



Franz J. Hinkelammert finds the same problem in macro-classism, doing 
analysis of the world of socio-cultural life today. 

The rich capitalistic countries have lost interest in a development policy for the 
Third World and have opted to block it as much as they can. . . . capitalism 
denies it, . . . the very possibility of human solidarity. . . . Human dignity is 
denied when solidarity is denied. (14-16) 



63 



Jesus opposed such an exclusive relationship, or ministry in the name of God to 
humanity. "Jesus answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone but by 
every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.'" (Matthew 4:4) Jesus' name of God, 
i.e. "it is written" and "the mouth of God," here symbolizes a narrative or holistic God. not 
simply a functional or exclusive God. Jesus here identified himself with humanity or a 
holistic human being not a simply physical being. In other words, Jesus' rejection of the 
first temptation seemed to imply that he should not reinforce Jewish exclusive 
relationships at table. And moreover, the rejection seemed to assume that the inclusive 
ministry should be practiced to promote or re-create holistic human relationships, or very 
humanity, in the world of socio-cultural life. 

The second temptation [or the third one in Luke] the tempter asked Jesus to do 
as a so-called divine method of ministry was ecclesial life or order that is symbolized as 

preacher-audience relationship in the world of socio-cultural life. 

Then the devil took him to the holy city, and set him on the pinnacle of the 
temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down; for it 
is written, 'He will give his angels charge of you,' and 'On their hands they will 
bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.'" (Matthew 4:5-6) 

What the tempter emphasized here seemed not to be the highest position of the pinnacle 
but the religious life or order of the holy city itself. Luke more directly expresses, "He 

64 



[the devil] took him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple." (4:9) The 
tempter's intent implies that the church was under holy order at that time. This shows 
that sucli^ Jewish religious life or order of holiness had been considered as an ecclesial 
method or politics of divine ministry in the world of Jewish socio-cultural life. Marcus J. 
Borg gives us helpful information for understanding the Jewish implication of the 

tempter's task: 

The primary paradigm shaping the Jewish social world: "Be holy as God is 
holy." . . . The dominant social vision was centered in holiness; . . . 

. . . Holiness thus meant the same as purity . . . The ethos of purity 
produced a politics of purity-that is, a society structured around a purity 
system. ... At a high level of abstraction, they are systems of classifications, 
lines and boundaries. A purity system "is a cultural map which indicates a place 
for everything and everything in its place."' . . . 

... At the center of the purity system were the temple and the 
priesthood. . . . 

. . . The elites of his day read Scripture in accordance with the 
paradigm of holiness as purity. (49-52, 58) 

The Jewish ecclesial life, or order, shows how Jewish life worked. All Jewish life was 
under a hierarchical method of ministry. The ecclesial life, or order, was in fact to reflect 
a minister-centered ideology, relationship, or order. The second temptation in a sense 
shows that Jesus was dealing with an ecclesiastical hierarchic system of the socio-cultural 



65 



life world, i.e., a Jewish minister-centered method of ministry. 

What problem did the second temptation have? It reflects a socio-cultural 
hierarchic domination of human life or order by virtue of ecclesiasticalism or religious 

elitism, as Marcus J. Borg writes: 

Purity was political because it structured society into a purity system. . . . 

. . . The purity system established a spectrum of people ranging from 
the pure through varying degrees of purity to people on the margin to the 
radically impure. . . . 

. . . Thus the politics of purity was to some extent the ideology of the 
dominant elites-religious, political, and economic. (50, 53) 

Given the second temptation, in a word, Jesus could not avoid diverse socio-cultural 
discrimination or classism and careerism. According to this view, human life should be 
classified and limited in the name of intellectualism. In this system, human life 
functionalized and dehumanized human power and relationship in the so-called name of 

■I t r\ 

divine order. It also distorted the human imagination according to the hierarchic 



The New American Bible- 

PRIESTS, JEWISH. Sacred ministers, whose duty it was to offer sacrifice at the 
altar of holocausts, and to enter morning and evening into the holy place to burn 
incense at the golden altar (Heb 7, 27; 10, 11). They also had care of the 
loaves of proposition (Mt 12, 4) and certified the cure of lepers (Lk 17, 13f). 
They were divided into twenty-four classes, each of which in turn officiated for 
a week at the temple (Lk 1,5). . . . For their support the priests received tithes 
and other offerings. (419) 

112 

Franz J. Hinkelammert finds the same problem, i.e. dehumanized international 
order, in macro-classism, doing macroscopic analysis of the world of socio-cultural life 

66 



relationship. These three points are the socio-cultural implications of the second 

1 1 "X 

temptation, or the Jewish hierarchic ministerial method, in the church. 

Jesus refused such a hierarchically ordered relationship, or preaching ministry, in 

the name of God's will for a genuinely human relationship. "Jesus said to him, "Again it 

is written, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God."' (Matthew 4:7) Jesus' interpretation 

of the thought concerning God, i.e. "again it is written," here implies God's will, not an 

ideological God of human making. Jesus identified himself with a general human being 

as a creature or a worshiper, not with a simply ecclesial being. In other words, Jesus' 

rejection of the second temptation seemed to imply that he should not reproduce the 

Jewish hierarchical preaching ministry in the church or in the world of religion. 

Moreover, the rejection seemed to assume that the preaching ministry itself should aim to 

clarify religious identity in order to re-create the true human relationship or image in the 

world of socio-cultural life. 

The third temptation [or the second one in Luke] that the tempter asked Jesus to 

perform as a religious method of ministry was the faith problem that could be symbolized 

today. "The Third World is economically necessary for the rich countries but its 
population is not needed." (14) 

113 See above note of "PRIESTS, JEWISH" quoted from The New American Bible. 

67 



as religious mystery, or healing relationship in the world of socio-cultural life Matthew 
records, "Again the devil took him to a very high mountain, and showed him all the 
kingdoms of the world and the glory of them; and he said to him, "All these I will give 
you, if you will fall down and worship me."" (4:8-9) What the tempter intended seemed 
not to be the vision or faith of the earthly glory but the physical religious practice 
symbolized by the very high mountain. 

Luke records more implicitly, "The devil took him up, and showed him all the 
kingdoms of the world in a moment of time." (4:5) Luke's record emphasizes that the 
illusion Jesus saw was a by-product or a physical structure of religious practice. The 
tempter's intent here implies that the earthly faith was characterized by physical 
practice at that time. This shows that such Jewish practice of faith had been 
considered as a physical method or faith of earthly ministry in the world of Jewish socio- 
cultural life. Marcus J. Borg gives us useful information for understanding the Jewish 
implication of the tempter's request: 



The physical religious practice indicates the Jewish observance of purity laws. 
It means visualized worship according to earthly authority. An example is shown in 
hierarchic form of worship. Matthew 4:9 He [the devil] said to him [Jesus], "All these I 
will give you, if you will fall down and worship me." 

115 Ibid. 



68 



Physical wholeness was associated with purity, and lack of wholeness with 
impurity. . . . The purity contrast also was associated with economic class. To 
some extent, this association resulted from popular wisdom, which saw wealth as 
a blessing from God ("The righteous will prosper") and poverty as an indication 
that one had not lived right. And to some extent, it arose because the abject 
_poor could not in practice observe the purity laws. (51) 

The physical structure of Jewish religious practice or faith stipulated how Jewish religion 
saved her people. All the Jews were subject to the Jewish physical method of ministry. 
The physical practice, or faith tended, in fact, to reflect materialistic spirituality. The 
third temptation in a sense shows that Jesus was confronted by a physical faith system of 
the socio-cultural life world, i.e., the Jewish materialistic method of ministry. 

What problem did the third temptation have? It advocated socio-cultural 
materialism of human spirituality in the so-called name of faith. The materialism also 
implies privatization, as Luke records: "[The devil] said to him, "To you I will give all this 
authority and their glory; for it has been delivered to me, and 1 give it to whom I will If 
you, then, will worship me, it shall all be yours."" (4:6-7) 

Given the third temptation in Matthew or this in Luke, Jesus could not avoid 
socio-cultural mammonism or materialism. The human image here should be 
transformed a kind of natural image. The human image projected by this system 
materialized and naturalized humanity in the so-called name of faith. It also distorted 

69 



spirituality according to the Jewish physical ecclesial experience, structure, or 
environment. The three points presented here are the socio-cultural implications of the 
third temptation, or the Jewish physical ministerial method of faith. 

Jesus rejected such materialistic spirituality or healing ministry in the name of 
spiritual faith based upon the true image of humanity. Then Jesus said to him, 

"Begone, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only 
shall you serve.'" (Matthew 4:10) Jesus' faith in God implies here a spiritual God, not 
the physical one. Jesus identified himself with a spiritual being as a creature and re- 
creator, not simply an ecclesial member. In other words, Jesus' rejection of the third 
temptation seemed to imply that he should not repeat the Jewish physical healing ministry 
in faith. Moreover, the rejection seemed to assume that healing ministry itself should be 
practiced to re-create very human spirituality or image in the world of socio-cultural life 

It is clear that the temptation of Jesus revealed the process of establishing Jesus' 
divine method of earthly ministry. It is also clear that the Jesus' threefold method or 
logic of ministry implied in the temptation was symbolic of the divine program to re- 



us T, -J 

Ibid. 



117 

Implies that man is spiritual. 



70 



create very human relationship, life, and image of God in the world of socio-cultural life 

In short, the temptation of Jesus should symbolize how his ministry would 
unfold in the world of socio-cultural life. As seen above, the first temptation is an 
important clue for understanding Jesus' table relationship or fellowship ministry. The 
second temptation is a clue for understanding his preaching life or ministry. And the 
third temptation is a clue for understanding his healing image or ministry. 



3. Jesus' Method of Ministry 

Jesus' method of ministry is a series of processes that were composed of a 
threefold ministry to re-create very holistic human relationship, life, and image: fellowship, 
preaching, and healing ministry. The credibility of my understanding is made very clear 

in Luke's record. 

After this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them on ahead of 
him, two by two, into every town and place where he himself was about to 
come. . . . "Whenever you enter a town and they receive you, eat what is set 
before you; heal the sick in it and say to them, 'The kingdom of God has come 
near to you.'" (10:1, 8-9) 

The Jesus' fellowship, 118 healing, 119 and preaching 120 method of ministry in which he 



1 1 ft 

Comes from "Eat what is set before you." 



Comes from "Heal the sick in it." 



71 



instructed his disciples was not the same as the existing Jewish method of ministry, as 
seen in the previous section. While the existing Jewish method or system of ministry 
was exclusive at table, hierarchical in the church, and materialistic in its faith, Jesus' 
method was characterized by an open-table, God-speaking narrative, and spiritual healing 
ministry in the world of socio-cultural life. The Jesus' order of course reflected his own 
method of ministry that he himself practiced and exemplified in advance. 

How did Jesus practice or exemplify his ministry? The series of his ministerial 
processes or activities were threefold: fellowship, preaching, and healing processes. His 
feeding process of fellowship ministry is clearly shown in the gospels. Matthew's record 

is detailed and typical: 

Jesus said to them [the disciples], "How many loaves have you?" They said, 
"Seven, and a few fish." And commanding the crowd to sit down on the 
ground, he took the seven loaves and the fish, and having given thanks he broke 
them and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. 
And they all ate and were satisfied; and they took up seven baskets full of broken 
pieces left over. (15:34-37) 

Matthew seems to divide Jesus' ministerial process at table into two: pre-feeding and 
feeding stages. The former indicates that all members got dinner ready, i.e., prepared 



1 2D 

Comes from "Say to them, "The kingdom of God has come near to you. 



72 



foodstuffs and sat down. The latter indicates Jesus' blessing, all members' mealtime, 
and cleaning up time. Jesus' fellowship ministry in a sense was characterized by 
thanksgiving, or eucharistic for the Jews. Moreover, his last supper seemed to be 
included in this typical fellowship ministry. Mark records, "As they [the twelve] were 
eating, he [Jesus] took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them, and said, 
"Take; this is my body." And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to 
them, and they all drank of it." (14:22-23) His thanksgiving or eucharistic feeding 
process of fellowship ministry, including the Last Supper, seemed to be symbolic of a 
divine method of fellowship ministry. 

Jesus' fellowship ministry was also open, or inclusive, in the world of life. His 
tables, whether he was invited or he served, transcended Jewish socio-cultural lines: 
androcracy, faction, the chosen and so on. "In a general way," Marcus J. Borg says, 
"sharing a meal represented mutual acceptance." (55) Jesus' fellowship ministry, 
including the participation of women should therefore mean going beyond the exclusive 
Jewish table manners of the first century, i.e., which sharply demarcated between male and 
female Matthew records Jesus' anti-androcentric fellowship ministry: "They [the 



1 2 1 

Means sexism, classism, racism and so on respectively in modern terms. 



73 



crowds, the disciples, and Jesus] all ate and were satisfied. And they took up twelve 
baskets full of the broken pieces left over. And those who ate were about five thousand 
men, besides women and children." (14:20-21) His fellowship ministry was also anti- 
factional. He accepted all invitations to dinners whoever asked him, whether they were 
the Pharisees or outcasts. Matthew records that Jesus sat at table in the tax collector 



1 99 • 19^ 

Matthew's house. Luke records that Jesus sat at table in some Pharisees' houses. 



His fellowship ministry was also universal in its scope. In particular, his last supper 
seemed to make clear the universal openness or inclusiveness. Mark records, "He [Jesus] 
said to them, "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many." (14:24) 124 

In short, Jesus' open feeding method of fellowship ministry seemed to be a process 
of re-creating the divine human relationship, or the very human image of God, in the 
world of socio-cultural life, especially through the ministry or symbol of divine open or 
inclusive tables, i.e., since being started with thanksgiving and blessing. 

Jesus' narrative-dialogical process of preaching ministry was composed of 



122 Matthew 9:9-10. 



123 Luke 7:36, 11:37, and 14:1. 



1 A 

This implies his "costly love." 



74 



proclaiming the gospel, or Good News, and employing parables. The proclamation of 
the gospel, or the good news, seemed to reflect his God-centrality Employment of 
parables seemed to reflect his dialogical method of ministry. Mark writes, "Jesus came 
into Galilee, preaching the gospel of God, and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the 
kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel."" (1:14-15) The verses 
seem to be divided into two parts: the title and outline or the foundation and method of 
Jesus' preaching ministry. The former, i.e. "the gospel of God," implied that God is the 
gospel or the good news. It suggests that Jesus' preaching ministry was to proclaim or 
teach the good news image of God. "He [Jesus] said to them [the people], "I must preach 
the good news of the kingdom of God to the other cities also; for I was sent for this 
purpose." ' (Luke 4:43) The kingdom here is identified with the good news that comes 
from Jesus' understanding of God. The kingdom, therefore, is a spoken image of God as 
good news. In other words, the foundation of Jesus' preaching ministry was the spoken 
kingdom of God, or the good news. It was very significant. 12 The reason is that Jesus 
himself did not admit the Jewish religious authorities of his time to have the holistic 



■i or 

My point is that the kingdom for Jesus was the subject matter in preaching life 



or ministry. 



75 



earthly power of God. This implies that the kingdom of God should not be the purpose 

of Jesus' holistic ministry. Vincent Taylor rightly says, 

The kingdom of God is not primarily, as Ritschl taught, "the organization of 
humanity through action inspired by love," although undoubtedly such a 
statement well describes the conditions of human society when the Kingdom is 
brought into being. The foundation idea is expressed by the Hebrew word 
malkuth, the active rule of God. God's sovereignty in the hearts and lives of 
men expressed in the doing of his will describes in its fundamental aspects what 
Jesus meant by the kingdom of God. 

The preaching ministry in a sense was to reflect his God-centrality. That is to say, the 
kingdom of God was the major subject of Jesus' narrative-preaching ministry and an 
expression of his God-centrality. 

Then, how can we understand Jesus' method of preaching ministry, i.e., his 
employment of parable or narrative? While Jesus' method of proclaiming the gospel or 
the good news was in fact to present his image of God or his ministerial image of the God- 
centered life, his method of employing parables seemed to show us how to transform the 
distortions of Jewish life, i.e. hierarchic-ideological life, into narrative-dialogical life. 



Luke 17:20-21 "Being asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God was 
coming, he answered them, "The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed; 
nor will they say, 'Lo, here it is! Or 'There!' for behold, the kingdom of God is in the 
midst of you." 



1 27 

Vincent Taylor, The Life and Ministry of Jesus (New York: Abingdon Press, 



1955), 72. 



76 



What did Jesus' parables mean in his dialogical relationship 9 Mark's record 

gives us useful information: 

When he [Jesus] was alone, those who were about him with the twelve 
asked him concerning the parables. . . . 

. . . With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were 
able to hear it; he did not speak to them without a parable, but privately to his 
own disciples he explained everything. (4:10, 33-34) 

The parables were his means or grounds connecting him with his people, his image of God 
with his people's image of God, and especially divine world of life with the Jewish world 
of life. Thomas Groome rightly sees Jesus' parables in terms of their dialectical 

128 

power: 

This critical consciousness to which Jesus led people is also 
exemplified in his use of parables. . . . "The parable does not present factual 
information that a person can receive and remain neutral." Rather, it engages us 
as active participants in the kind of wisdom "that is to reshape the whole life of 
the disciple." In the parables, "Jesus was struggling for the social imagination 
of his audience." (305) 

Jesus could create the dialogical life of relationship in the world of parables or 
narratives. ' The parables brought about both dialogues of God's will (the kingdom) 



1 ?ft 

Thomas Groome, Sharing Faith: A Comprehensive Approach to Religious 
Education and Pastoral Ministry {New York: Harper San Francisco, 1991). 



129 



See Marcus J. Borg: 



By being good stories, they [the long parables] draw the hearer into the world 
of the narrative. They then invite the hearer to see something else in the light 
of what happens in the narrative world. . . . The appeal is to the imagination, to 

77 



and of human life itself (the socio-cultural life world) between Jesus and the Jews For 

example, Matthew records, 

Then Peter came up and said to him [Jesus], "Lord, how often shall my 
brother sin against me, and I forgive him? As many as seven times?" Jesus 
said to him, "I do not say to you seven times, but seventy times seven." 

"Therefore the kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who 
wished to settle accounts with his servants. . . . Then his [The servant who owed 
him [a king] ten thousand talents] lord summoned him and said to him, 'You 
wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt because you besought me; and 
should not you have had mercy on your fellow servant [The one who owed him a 
hundred denarii], as I had mercy on you?' . . . forgive your brother from your 
heart." (18:21-35) 

What dialogues could this parable bring about? Peter's question concerned the socio- 
cultural life world. Jesus' parable or narrative was a kingdom parable. There should be 
at least two kinds of dialogues, or a twofold dialogue, from the parable, in addition to the 
dialogue between Jesus and Peter: about God's will and human life. Jesus' intent here 
should be expressed in the following assumptions. A narrative of the kingdom or the 
good news makes human beings forgive their brothers from their heart. Multiple 
dialogues of the kingdom in human mind make human beings live in the socio-cultural life 
world according to their images of God. In short, Jesus' dialogical method of preaching 

that place within us in which reside our images of reality and our images of life 
itself; the invitation is to a different way of seeing, to different images for 
shaping our understanding of life. This emphasis upon seeing runs throughout 
his message. (74) 

78 



ministry seemed to be a process of re-creating very human life in the world of socio- 
cultural life, especially through proclamation and parables or narratives. 

Jesus' healing ministry was composed of finding open faith, verifying healing 
proclamation, and changing status or healing. The open faith seemed to imply a 
spiritual trust between the healer and the sick person. The spiritual trust here implied the 
healer's spiritual intent, or working love of spiritual healing on the one hand, "' while the 
trust implied the spiritual faith or desire of the sick person that the bearer of the healing 
power could be related to their sickness or illness, on the other hand. The open faith, 
in fact, however, meant the latter, i.e., the sick person's working spiritual faith, since the 
healer's intent or love of spiritual healing was already proclaimed by Jesus himself as one 
of his ministerial activities. " The faith of the sick was expressed in a diversity of forms: 



130 Matthew 8:5-13: 

As he entered Capernaum, a centurion came forward to him, beseeching him and 
saying, "Lord, my servant is lying paralyzed at home, in terrible distress." . . . 
When Jesus heard him, he marveled, and said to those who followed him, "Truly, 
I say to you, not even in Israel have I found such faith. I tell you, many will 
come from east and west and sit at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the 
kingdom of heaven, . . . And to the centurion Jesus said, "Go; be it done for you 
as you have believed." And the servant was healed at that very moment. 

131 

Matthew 8:17 "He took our infirmities and bore our diseases." 

1 32 

Matthew 9:21 "If I only touch his garment, I shall be made well." 

Matthew 12:28 "If it is by the Spirit of God that I cast out demons, then the 

79 



language, action and so on. 134 Moreover, the faith was very inclusive, or open to space, 
time, sex or gender, race, class and so on according to the gospels. 

The healing proclamation seemed to have dual meaning: verification of Gods 
healing power and proclamation of recovery in the world of life. The verification meant 
that healing would be accomplished by the divine power. The proclamation meant that 
the healing constituted whole recovery in the world of life. The healings were 
manifested in a very diversity of forms according to healing circumstances: declaration of 

1 T C 

healing, action and so on. 

The change of status, or healing, seemed to imply the spiritual event that 
affected its physical world. The spiritual events were brought about through the faithful 
action of the sick person to Jesus' love and/or command. The action included personal 
and intercessory contacts with Jesus himself in language and action. The secret of the 



kingdom of God has come upon you." 

Matthew 8:2 "A leper came to him [Jesus] and knelt before him, saying, "Lord, 
if you will, you can make me clean.'" Matthew 9:20 "A woman who had suffered from a 
hemorrhage for twelve years came up behind him and touched the fringe of his garment." 
Matthew 12:22 "A blind and dumb demoniac was brought to him [Jesus]." 

1 or 

Matthew 8:10 "Truly, I say to you, not even in Israel have I found such faith." 
Mark 5:34 "Daughter, your faith has made you well; go in peace, and be healed of 
your disease." 

See, for a concept of "intercessory," Larry Dossey, Healing Words'- The 

80 



action here seemed to be "the name of Jesus" itself. 13 It seemed not to ask the sick 
person to know a formulated faith of healing or a prescribed healing formula. Rather, the 
healing action and response were open or inclusive to their intelligence, emotions, and 
social locations. The only requirement was their faith that Jesus' spiritual power could 
heal whatever their illness or sickness was. Thus Jesus' healing ministry in a sense was 
spiritual. That is to say, Jesus' healing method of ministry seemed to be a process of re- 
creating very human image, i.e. the very spiritual being, in the world of socio-cultural life, 
especially in the name of Jesus. 



4. Conclusion 

Jesus ministry was begun with divine baptism and continued as he practiced, re- 
created, or taught his people at table, in dialogue, and in healing for very human 

Power of Prayer and the Practice of Medicine (New York: Harper Paperbacks, 1997): 

Therefore mind-body events that are initiated nonlocally almost always have 
local repercussions. This is true for all the examples of nonlocal events we've 
examined including transpersonal imagery, intercessory prayer, and distant 
healing. . . . Throughout this book we have emphasized the nonlocal effects of 
prayer, such as when an individual prays that a distant person be healed. (351- 
352) 

Luke 9:49-50 "John answered, "Master, we saw a man casting out demons in 
your mane, and we forbade him, because he does not follow with us." But Jesus said to 
him, "Do not forbid him: for he that is not against you is for you."" 

81 



relationship, life, and image after his ministerial method who made clear during the 
temptation. 

His ministry seemed to be well prepared for how he should deal with the Jewish 
method of ministry in the world of socio-cultural life. He rejected relationships, life, and 
images, which were exclusive, hierarchical, and materialistic. His ministry in fact was to 
mean rejection of the existing Jewish philosophy of ministry that was natural, 
ecclesiastical, and physical and distorted human relationship, life, and image 

Jesus seemed to invent his own inclusive fellowship, dialogical preaching, and 
spiritual healing method to re-create very holistic human relationship, life, and image. 
That is to say, his open feeding method of fellowship ministry seemed to be a process of 
re-creating the very human relationship in the world of socio-cultural life. His narrative- 
dialogical method of preaching ministry, i.e. employing proclamation and parables or 
narratives, seemed to be a process of re-creating the very human life in the world of socio- 
cultural life. His spiritual proclamatory healing method of ministry seemed to be a 
process of re-creating the very human image or human spirituality. 

What was the philosophy of ministry that Jesus' ministry worked in the world of 
socio-cultural life? His philosophy seemed to come from his understanding of God's will 

82 



or image in the world of socio-cultural life. It was well reflected from what he 
paraphrased God's will in the world of life to teach his disciples. "You [Jesus' disciples] 
may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. . . . You, therefore, must be perfect, as your 
heavenly Father is perfect." (Matthew 5:45, 48) 

This philosophy implied re-creating human relationship, life, and image in the 
world of life. It revealed that the philosophy of re-creational ministry asks a divine or 
perfect work in the world of life. The philosophy of Jesus' ministry in a sense can be 
divided into three kinds of ideals according to the implications of his rejection at the 
temptation: fellowship, preaching, and healing ideals. The first or fellowship ideal 
should be universal or open brotherhood, sisterhood, or neighborhood: "Whoever does 
the will of my Father in heaven is my brother, and sister, and mother." (Matthew 
12:50) The second or preaching ideal should be truthful or dialogical friendship: "You 
are my friends if you do what I command you." (John 15:14) The third or healing 
ideal should be working or creative spirituality: "My Father is working still, and I am 
working." (John 5:17) 



83 



CHAPTER C 
UNDERSTANDING JESUS' PARADIGM 



1. Introduction 

What is a religious life? Does it not mean a socio-cultural religious 
phenomenon? Do we not understand the principle of a religion when the religious 
phenomenon is explained by its foundation in the world of socio-cultural life? Yes, the 
conceptual foundations of religion should explain religious life. We can call such a case 

I TO 

a paradigm of religion. "A paradigm," Samir Okasha says, "consists of two main 
components." The two components are assumptions and exemplars. The former 
means logical premise and the latter means logical conclusion. And the paradigm is 
called normal science means logic itself. A paradigm in plain words means an 
explanatory framework of a phenomenon. Likewise, a paradigm of religion is to explain 
a religious phenomenon. To explain or understand a religious phenomenon in a sense 



My basic concepts that I use to explain a paradigm are foundation, content, 
and principle. Samir Okasha adopts "assumptions," "faith," "a paradigm or normal science 
itself and that are corresponding to my paradigmatic concepts. Samir Okasha, 
Philosophy of Science-' A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 
81-83. 

139 Ibid., 81. 



84 



implies asking the whole explanatory framework including its logical premise and 
conclusion of a religious phenomenon, i.e., its religious life and/or ministry. Here, 1 call 
a logical premise "foundation," its logical conclusion "content, 11 and its logic itself or a 
paradigm "principle" in relation to religion. The paradigm of religion, that is to say. can 
be understood by the foundation, content, and principle. 

What was the state of religion or Jewish religion, i.e. Judaism, as it was 
understood in the age of Jesus? As generally known, the paradigm of Jewish religion 
should be understood by its foundation in the Hebrew Bible. However, what we call the 
foundation in fact implies an interpretation. Why the interpretation was necessary can be 
explained in order to apply it in the world of socio-cultural life. The foundation in a 
sense means a ministerial interpretation, i.e. the foundation of ministry. The 
interpretation produces a religious life or phenomenon. A religious phenomenon in a 
sense is to reflect a hermeneutic ministry. To inquire into a paradigm of religious 
phenomenon or religion, therefore in fact, means to discover a paradigm of ministry. 

What then was the paradigm of Jewish religion? The foundation of the Jewish 
paradigm seemed to be holiness, i.e., holy God or holiness of God. Holiness here implies 
that the Jews were to read the Old Testament or the Hebrew Bible in light of "a holy God," 

85 



since the Jewish ministers or priests believed that God ordered them to be holy. Marcus J. 
Borg presents a well defined concept of the Jewish holy God or holiness: "The primary 
paradigm shaping the Jewish social world: "Be holy as God is holy." . . . The dominant 
social vision was centered in holiness." 140 

The content of the Jewish paradigm seemed to be a purity system in the world of 
socio-cultural life. As Marcus J. Borg sees, 141 purity referred to socio-cultural 
separation and provided criteria for classifying the socio-cultural life, i.e., a socio-cultural 
system for the Jewish priests and their people who believed in the holy God, or the 
holiness of God. In other words, the Jewish priests or ministers employed a purity 
system of holiness to clarify their people and stratify them according to their list, i.e.. the 
Mosaic Law in their world of life. 142 



Marcus J. Borg, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time-' The Historical Jesus 
and the Heart of Contemporary Faith (New York: Harper San Francisco, 1994), 49. 

141 Ibid., 50. 

See, for my understanding the relationship of holiness and purity, The New 
American Bible, Saint Joseph ed. (Woodland Hills: Benziger Publishing Company, 1992): 
"HOLY (SANCTIFY) God is "holy," because he is completely apart from any contact with 
the universe; but also because he possesses moral perfection." (416) See also the same 
book for my understanding the Mosaic law: 

LAW OF MOSES. The law, respected by all Jews as from God, consisted of the 
five books of Moses. These formed the basis of the Scripture reading and 
instruction in the synagogue services. In addition the Pharisees observed a 
traditional law, the Mishna, which they taught also had its author in Moses. Our 

86 



How did the reality of the Jewish purity system work 9 It presented a completely 
ordered socio-cultural world, i.e., a hierarchical or stratified culture and society. Jerome 

H. Neyrey writes: 

"Purity," then, is the orderly system whereby people perceive that certain 
things belong in certain places at certain times. "Purity" is the abstract way of 
indicating what fits, what is appropriate, and what is in place. "Purity" refers to 
a system, a coherent and detailed drawing of lines in the world to peg, classify, 
and structure that world. "Purity" is a cultural map which indicates "a place for 
everything and everything in its place." (275) 

Marcus J. Borg also writes according to the Jerome H. Neyrey's concept of purity: 

The purity system established a spectrum of people ranging from the pure 
through varying degrees of purity to people on the margin to the radically 
impure. . . . 

... It is in the context of a purity system that created a world with 
sharp social boundaries between pure and impure, righteous and sinner, whole 
and not whole, male and female, rich and poor, Jews and Gentile. (50, 53) 

To put the reality concretely and simply, the purity system formed a very exclusive table 
relationship, a deeply ecclesiastical and hierarchical life, and an extremely materialistic 143 



Lord observed the Mosaic law and promulgated for his followers its essential 
element, the Ten Commandments (Mt 5, 17). He criticized the Pharisees for 
their neglect of it in favor of their traditions (Mt 15. 2-9). (417) 

See also Jerome H. Neyrey, "The Symbolic Universe of Luke-Acts: "They Turn 
the World Upside Down"," in The Social World of Luke-Acts-' Models for Interpretation, ed. 
Jerome H. Neyrey (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991): "2.0 THE BASIC MODEL: 
PURITY AND ORDER IN ISRAEL." (274-285) 

Matthew 23:23 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you tithe 
mint and dill and cumin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law, justice and 
mercy and faith; these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others." See 

87 



faith. 144 For example, the Pharisees did not share a table with outcasts. Even Jewish 
priests or ministers were hierarchically classified into 24 levels. 146 Even Jesus' earthly 
mother Mary offered a pair of turtledoves or two youth pigeons to the temple Jerusalem as 
their sacrifice for baby Jesus. 147 The Jews should offer their physical sacrifices to be 



Marcus J. Borg: "He [Jesus] criticized a system that emphasized tithing and neglected 
justice." (54) See also, for my concept of Jewish materialistic system, ministry, or faith, 
the analysis of the third temptation of Jesus in the section 2. Jesus' Temptation from a 
Socio-Cultural Point of View, CHAPTER B. DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY: TEMPTATION 
AND MINISTERIAL METHOD, PART I. JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY. 

144 Marcus J. Borg, 54-57. 

145 Marcus J. Borg, 51. 

Luke 15:1-2 "Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to hear 
him. And the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, "This man receives sinners 
and eats with them." 

The New American Bible'- 

PRIESTS, JEWISH. Sacred ministers, whose duty it was to offer sacrifice at the 
altar of holocausts, and to enter morning and evening into the holy place to burn 
incense at the golden altar (Heb 7, 27: 10, 11). They also had care of the 
loaves of proposition (Mt 12, 4) and certified the cure of lepers (Lk 17, 13f). 
They were divided into twenty-four classes, each of which in turn officiated for 
a week at the temple (Lk 1,5). . . . For their support the priests received tithes 
and other offerings. (419) 

Ibid. See the following comments for Luke 2:22. 

2, 22: Their purification: syntactically, their must refer to Mary and Joseph, even 
though the Mosaic law never mentions the purification of the husband. . . . The 
woman who could not afford a lam offered instead two turtledoves or two young 
pigeons, as Mary does here. (101) 

Luke 2:22-24 "And when the time came for their purification according to the law 
of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord (as it is written in 
the law of the Lord, "Every male that opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord") 
and to offer a sacrifice according to what is said in the law of the Lord, "a pair of 

88 



healed. 



Then, how could the Jewish paradigm of religious life and ministry be possible 9 
What was the principle, logic, or value system of the paradigm that both the Jewish 
ministers and their people the Jews held in common? It should be made clear by the 
following schematic explanation that correspond to my categories of ''foundation,' 1 
"content," and "principle" in turn: explanans, 149 explanandum, 15 ° and explanation 
schema or explanatory framework. 151 

The Jewish paradigm of ministry can be simplified by the following logic. ~ If 



turtledoves, or two young pigeons." 

148 Marcus J. Borg. 54-57. 

The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles'- 
"Explanans n. PI. -nantia. M20. [Latin, present participal of explanare EXPLAIN.] Philos. = 
EXPLICANS. Cf. preceding (headword or main entry)." (s. v. "Explanans") 

Ibid.: "Explanandum n. PI. -da. L19. [Latin, neuter gerundive of expianare 
EXPLAIN.] Philos. = EXPLICANDUM. Cf. next." (s. v. "Explanandum") 

See, for the basic concepts, Samir Okasha: 

The phenomenon to be explained is called the explanandum, and the general 
laws and particular facts that do the explaining are called the explanans. ... So 
the structure of a scientific explanation is essentially the same, whether the 
explanandum, i.e. the thing we are trying to explain, is particular or general. 
(42-43) 

1 CO 

Richard Jeffrey, 66. The Modus Ponens (or "Detachment") means: If P then q, 
P, therefore q. 



89 



Jewish ministers believed that God's holiness comes from separating from the earth and 
that earthly holiness can be achieved by separation, then they would achieve an earthly 
holy order by separation [Principle]. The Jewish ministers believed that God orders them 
to be holy and so on [Foundation]. Therefore, the Jewish ministers formulated a purity 
system of holiness that allowed their Jewish people to be classified according to the list of 
holiness or purity [Content]. 

The above paradigm of ministry, however, was at stake at the age of Jesus. Many 
Jews ignored the purity system in the world of their socio-cultural life. They started to 
experience new, open table relationships that were not exclusive, dialogical, not 
hierarchical, speech life about religious matters, and spiritual, not materialistic, faith in 
healing. The center of the new phenomena was Jesus of Nazareth. He gathered and 
gave meals to those who were more than the total number of the Pharisees. ' It was an 
open, non-classified, inclusive movement. People from all classes and sexes gathered 
together in the same place without any limitation. He won the admiration of the Jewish 



I CO 

Matthew 14:21 "Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women 
and children." See, for the number of Pharisees, The New American Bible- "PHARISEES. 
A religious sect of the Jews that numbered about 6000 in the time of Christ." (419) 



90 



crowds by his method of ministry. 154 And the method of his ministry ushered in a new 
paradigm of ministry in about three years. 15 ' It was a paradigm shift of ministry ~ ( in 
the world of Jewish socio-cultural life in about A.D. 30. 



154 The Ne w Am eric an Bible '■ 

JESUS. 

Jesus wins the admiration of the crowds by his preaching and healing, 
proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God and doing good. He is soon 
followed by numerous disciples and like John his precursor becomes a sign of 
contradiction for the Judaism of his time (Mt 10. 34; Lk 4, 15; 11, 27). (417) 

Luke 4:15 "He [Jesus] taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all." 
Luke 4:37 "Reports of him [Jesus] went out into every place in the surrounding 
region." 

My calculation is according to the Jewish calendar. John records the Jewish 
Passover at least three times with Jesus' ministry: 2:13, 6:4, and 12:1. Luke records the 
starting point of Jesus' ministry with his age: "Jesus, when he began his ministry, was 
about thirty years of age. being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph." (3:23) Therefore, 
it is reasonable that the period of Jesus' ministry was about three years. 

1 £T£- 

See, for a concept of paradigm shift, To Heal the Sin-Sick Soul-' Toward a 
Spiritual of Anti-Racist Ministry by edited Emmett Jarrett (New London: The Episcopal 
Urban Caucus, 1996): 

A paradigm shift usually occurs when the established "rules of the game" fail to 
provide effective solutions to our problems. A new insight, an alternative 
explanation, or a discovery provides perspective which revolutionizes our 
understanding. When the old framework gives way to the new, paradigm shift 
has occurred. (29) 

This year comes from a Korean dictionary: Grand Christian Word Dictionary-' 
The Whole of the Scriptural, Hymnal, and Christian Terms, Korean ed., ed. Chongsung Lee, 
Sunggu Cheong, Sunwoo Hong, and Seonwon Hwang (Seoul: The Korea Society of 
Missionary Literature, 2000). According to the book, Jesus was born around B.C. 4. (s. v. 
"Jesus") However, I adopt a useful idea from Paul W. Barnett's calculation in his Jesus 
and the Logic of History (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997): 
"By using John and Mark (in particular) we are able to build up a broad picture of Jesus' 
ministry." (113) Finally, I assume that Jesus started his ministry around A.D. 27. 



91 



The purpose of this chapter is to present my understanding of the new paradigm of 
Jesus' ministry in the world of socio-cultural life. For the purpose, I will revisit his 
method of ministry in light of my paradigmatic framework: foundation, content, and 
principle. That is to say, the premise of my socio-cultural analysis will be my 
paradigmatic framework. 

The paradigmatic framework implies finding an explanans, i.e. a logical premise, 
and an explanandum, i.e. a logical conclusion, in the new paradigm of ministry. As 
stated above, the explanans here means Jesus' foundation of ministry. The foundation 
will be his understanding of God or God's will. Likewise, the content or the 
explanandum will be his ministerial phenomena or method in the world of socio-cultural 
life. And the principle will give us an explanatory or paradigmatic schema of Jesus' 
ministry. And moreover, the paradigmatic framework will provide my socio-cultural 
analysis of his ministry a re-creational motive. 

ICO 

In other words, the socio-cultural analysis will enable us both to reproduce or 



I CO 

"Socio-cultural" means traditional and politico-economic sides in the world of 
socio-cultural life. A socio-cultural analysis of ministry can be semantically identified 
with a holistic analysis of ministry. 

A definition of "social" is provided by Joe Holland and Peter Henriot, S. J., in their 
Social Analysis' Linking Faith and Justice, revised and enlarged ed. (Maryknoll: Dove 
Communications and Orbis Books, 1996): "The term "society" came to dominance with the 
modern "social question" and the rise of the modern social sciences. It focuses on 

92 



re-create a hopeful or desirable historical reality or spirit and to avoid a tragic historical 
reality in the world of our socio-cultural life. Does it not mean the implication of 
caeteris paribus? 159 Yes, the socio-cultural analysis in fact asks us to find a paradigm or 
holistic model of Jesus' ministry to re-create such a meaningful ministry of Jesus in the 
world of life in our days. Jesus called the disciples his "brothers and sisters, 1 ' 
"friends," 161 and/or "re and co-creators" 162 and gave them his commandment of love 



economics and politics." (xii) 

A definition of "cultural" is provided by Joe Holland and Peter Henriot, S. J.: "The 
term "civilization/' by contrast ["society"], belongs more to deeper tradition in the west. 
"Civilization" connotes greater emphasis on culture, and, within culture, on religion." (xii) 

"caeteris paribus means "other things equal." The concept is used to 
emphasize "scientific reproduction or re-creation." See, for examples, Bernard Lonergan, 
Method in TheoiogyiNew York: Herder & Herder, 1972): 

It was confined to formulating the set of procedures that, caeteris paribus, yield 
historical knowledge, to explaining how that knowledge arises, in what it 
consists, what are its inherent limitations. . . . These writers are speaking in 
various manners of the same reality. They mean, I believe, that there exist 
procedures that, caeteris paribus, lead to historical knowledge. (195-196) 

See, for my concept of "brothers and sisters of Jesus," Matthew 12:50 
"Whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother, and sister, and mother.*' 

1 fi 1 

See, for my concept of "friends of Jesus," John: v 'You are my friends if you do 
what I command you." (15:14) See also Luke 12:4 "I [Jesus] tell you [disciples], my 
friends." 

See, for my concept of "re and co-creators," John 14:12 "Truly, truly, I say to 
you, he who believes in me will also do the works that I do; and greater works than these 
will he do." See also Matthew: "You may be sons of your Father who is in heaven . . . 
You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect." (5:45, 48) "Neither 
is new wine put into old wineskins; if it is, the skins burst, and the wine is spilled, and the 
skins are destroyed; but new wine is put into fresh wineskins, and so both are preserved." 
(9:17) 

93 



to make disciples of all nations. 164 I want this final chapter of understanding Jesus' 
paradigm of ministry to serve the ministerial imperative as a means in the world of our 
socio-cultural life. 



2. Foundation 

Jesus initiated new method of ministry. It is symbolized as "new wine" in 
Matthew, 165 recorded as "new teaching" and "a piece of unshrunk cloth" in Mark as 



163 John 15:12-17: 

This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you. 
Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. 
You are my friends if you do what I command you. No longer do I call you 
servants, for the servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have 
called you friends, for all that I have heard from my Father I have made known 
to you. You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you 
should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide: so that whatever you 
ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you. This I command you, to love 
one another. 

164 As I studied and stated in all of PART I: JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY, 
until now, I read the verse in dual meaning of evangelization or evangelism: Form and 
content or program and purpose of ministry. See, for my understanding of the whole 
program, method, or form of ministry, Matthew: "Go therefore and make disciples of all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 
teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you." (28:19-20) See, for my 
understanding of the purpose of ministry, John 17:23 "They [disciples] may become 
perfectly one." 

165 Matthew 9:17. 



94 



well, 166 and symbolized as "a new garment" in Luke as well. 167 We here call the new 
method a new paradigm of ministry. Why did he create the new method 9 The answer 
will be found in my process explaining the new paradigm. 

What was the explanans, i.e. the logical premise, or foundation of the new 
paradigm? The explanans here seems to question dual meaning: his understanding of 
God and ministerial, practical, or methodological logic. The dual processes of 
interpretation seem to form the foundation of the new paradigm of ministry. 

Jesus seemed to think that the image of God was divided into two according to the 
two traditional Jewish groups: the holy God in the legal tradition and the just God in the 



166 Mark 1:27: 

They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What 
is this? A new teaching! With authority he commands even the unclean spirits, 
and they obey him." "No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; 
if he does, the patch tears away from it, the new from the old, and a worse tear 
is made. And no one puts new wine into old wineskins: if he does, the wine will 
burst the skins, and the wine is lost, and so are the skins: but new wine is for 
fresh skins." (2:22) 

167 Luke 5:36-37: 

He [Jesus] told them [the Pharisees and scribes] a parable also: "No one tears a 
piece from a new garment and puts it upon an old garment: if he does, he will 
tear the new, and the piece from the new will not match the old. And no one 
puts new wine into old wineskins: if he does, the new wine will burst the skins 
and it will be spilled, and the skins will be destroyed." 



95 



prophetic tradition. 168 That is to say, the Jewish legal tradition saw God as a holy one 
and the prophetic tradition proclaimed a God who asks social justice. He knew that the 
dominant image of God was the former during his time. He realized that the dominant 
image made the world of Jewish socio-cultural life merciless and that this phenomenon 
did not reflect God's will in the Bible, i.e., the Commandments. 170 

1 CO 

See, for my detailed explanation, the section 2. Jesus' Baptism in the Gospels, 
CHAPTER A. DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY: BAPTISM AND MINISTERIAL PURPOSE. 
PART I: JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY. Matthew 5:17 'Think not that I have come to 
abolish the law and the prophets: I have come not to abolish them but to fulfill them." 

1 CQ 

See, for my detailed explanation, the section 2. Jesus' Temptation from a 
Socio-Cultural Point of View, CHAPTER B. DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY: TEMPTATION 
AND MINISTERIAL METHOD, PART I: JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY. 

My analogy of human image: 

In the world there are animal-like people. For example, lion-like-people would 
say that human beings have to learn the social image of ants. However, those people are 
never willing to imitate such an image for themselves, want rather to reign over others as 
the ruler of the jungle. In other words, those people learn the law of the jungle for 
themselves and imitate the image of the natural rulers. How is the life possible? The 
reason is that those people have a sense of their own superiority to others. And human 
experiential reason is to remain in its natural community not to create a new community. 

Naturalized moral obligation implies seeing human beings as the naturals not as 
being created in God's image, i.e., that it is natural that one should discriminate one's 
companions, human beings, according to their socio-cultural positions, classes, or races. 
In a sense, the image of animals makes human beings cruel animals and devaluates the 
human beings. What a stupid person he or she who wants to be under the control of 
others! Is this not "wild?" 

People who identify the image of human beings with the image of animals have to 
confront the following question: why did God not create Adam and Eve in the image of 
animals? 

See also Matthew 23:1-3, 23 for Jesus' analogy of human image: 

Then said Jesus to the crowds and to his disciples, "The scribes and the 
Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; so practice and observe whatever they tell you, 
but not what they do; for they preach, but do not practice. . . . Woe to you, 
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mind and dill and cumin, and 

96 



Jesus proclaimed that the dual love commandment of God is to reflect all the 

Jewish traditional images of God. 

"You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your should, 
and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a 
second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two 
commandments depend all the law and the prophets." (Matthew 22:37-40) 

The dual love of God and neighbor was the will of God for Jesus to integrate the divided 
images: "Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not 
to abolish them but to fulfill them." (Matthew 5:17) 

Then, what was Jesus' logic of the new method of ministry? He believed that 

171 1 7"} 

God is living and working and identifies loving human beings in the world of life 

1 TX 

with a loving God in heaven. So he said, "I do as the Father has commanded me." 
(John 14:31), which should mean living in the world of socio-cultural life according to 
God's perfect rule or law of love or mercy. "You may be sons of your Father who is in 



have neglected the weightier matters of the law, justice and mercy and faith: 
these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. 

17 1 

Matthew 22:32 "He [the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob] is not God of the 
dead, but of the living." Mark 12:27 also have the same record. 

179 

John 5:17 "Jesus answered them [the Jews], "My Father is working still, and I 
am working." 

Matthew 25:40 "The King will answer them, 'Truly, I say to you, as you did it 
to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me.'" 



97 



heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just 
and on the unjust. . . . You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect." 
(Matthew 5:45, 48) 

In short, the new foundation that Jesus realized was love, i.e., perfect love, God, or 
love of God. The perfect love implied practicing the divine law or rule of love or mercy 
in the world of socio-cultural life as God perfectly loves all human beings in the world as 
well as says in the Bible, i.e., the Commandments. 



3. Content 

What was the new phenomenon or content of Jesus' paradigm of ministry 9 As 
stated in the previous chapter, the new method of Jesus' ministry was threefold in the 
world of socio-cultural life: inclusive fellowship, dialogical preaching, and spiritual 
healing. The new ministerial phenomenon was to be well understood by noting the three 
sides in the Jewish world of socio-cultural life was very exclusive, hierarchic, and 
physical: table relationship, ecclesial life, and healing spirituality. In a word, the new 
phenomenon of table or feeding fellowship was very open and inclusive in its socio- 



98 



cultural relationship. The open table or feeding relationship included all the Jews: the 
Pharisees, sinners and tax collectors, women and so on. The socio-culturally 
open table relationship was of course promoted by Jesus: "When you give a feast, invite 
the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind." (Luke 14: 13) The relationship seemed to be a 
symbolic of every human relationship, as well as of socio-cultural integration of the Jews 
at Jesus' time. 

The new phenomenon of dialogical preaching was very God-centered and 
narrative in the world of life as well as of religion. The new narrative life was focused 
on the kingdom of God, i.e. finding God's will, and upon parables, i.e., God talk and its 
meaning in the world of life. The religious dialogical life was of course promoted by 
Jesus' preaching style: "With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were 

i n a 

When Jesus said that "I came to call sinners," or Israel's "lost sheep," this 
should be understood to mean all the Jews. The inclusiveness was symbolized at his 
fellowship ministry. It seemed to be symbolic of his practice of the perfect love in the 
world of socio-cultural life. See, for my detailed explanation, the section 3. Jesus' 
Purpose of Ministry, CHAPTER A. DEFINING JESUS' MINISTRY: BAPTISM AND 
MINISTEIRAL PURPOSE, PART I: JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY. 

Luke 1L37 "A Pharisee asked him [Jesus 1 to dine with him." Luke 14:1 "One 
sabbath when he went to dine at the house of a ruler who belonged to the Pharisees." 

1 "7 ft 

Luke 5:29 "Levi made him [Jesus] a great feast in his house: and there was a 
large company of tax collectors and others sitting at table with them." 

1 77 

Matthew 14:21 "Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women 
and children." 

99 



able to hear it." (Mark 4:33) The new lifestyle also seemed to promote diverse 
dialogues. Moreover, Jesus wanted to emphasize the importance of practicing God's 
will in the world of socio-cultural life: "Whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is 

1 "7Q 

my brother, and sister, and mother." The religious life seemed to be a symbol of 
human life and to show religious identity of the Jews at Jesus' time. The following 
record of Mark reflects well the reality of the new Jewish dialogical phenomenon and 

atmosphere. 

The scribe said to him [Jesus], "You are right, Teacher; you have truly said that 
he is one, and there is no other but he; and to love him with all the heart, and 
with all the understanding, and with all the strength, and to love one's neighbor 
as oneself, is much more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices." And 
when Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from 
the kingdom of God." (12:32-34) 

The new phenomenon of spiritual healing was very open and proclamatory in faith. 
The new healing spirituality or events were revealed by Jesus himself 180 and openly 
developed in the name of Jesus in the world of life. 181 That is, the spiritual events were 



Luke 8:9 "When his disciples asked him what this parable meant." This 
seems to be symbolic of creating an atmosphere of dialogue. 

179 

Both Matthew 12:50 and Mark 3:35 use the same record. 
Luke 5:17 "The power of the Lord was with him to heal." 



name. 



1Q 1 

Luke 9:49 "John answered, "Master, we saw a man casting out demons in your 



100 



187 1 8^ 184 IRS 

brought about by open faith of the name of Jesus beyond race, class, and sex. 
The new healing spirituality was promoted by the following healing proclamation of 



1 QO 

' Open Faith means self-imaginative faith in the name of Jesus of Nazareth 
beyond theological dogmas or formulas. 

183 See, for a case of the Gentile centurion, Matthew 8:5-13: 

As he [Jesus] entered Capernaum, a centurion came forward to him, beseeching 
him and saying, "Lord, my servant is lying paralyzed at home, in terrible 
distress." And he said to him, "I will come and heal him." But the centurion 
answered him, "Lord, I am not worthy to have you come under my roof: but only 
say the word, and my servant will be healed. For I am a man under authority, 
with soldiers under me; and I say to one, 'Go,' and he goes, and to another, 
'Come,' and he comes, and to my slave, 'Do this," and he does it." When Jesus 
heard him, he marveled, and said to those who followed him, "Truly, I say to you, 
not even in Israel have I found such faith. I tell you, many will come from east 
and west and sit at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of 
heaven, while the sons of the kingdom will be thrown into the outer darkness: 
there men will weep and gnash their teeth." And to the centurion Jesus said, 
"Go: be it done for you as you have believed." And the servant was healed at 
that very moment. 



184 



See, for a case of an official's son, John 4:46-53: 



So he [Jesus] came again to Cana in Galilee, where he had made the water wine. 
And at Capernaum there was an official whose son was ill. When he heard that 
Jesus had come from Judea to Galilee, he went and begged him to come down 
and heal his son, for he was at the point of death. . . . Jesus said to him. "Go: 
your son will live." ... As he was going down, his servants met him and told him 
that his son was living. . . . The father know that was the hour when Jesus had 
said to him, "Your son will live": and he himself believed, and all his household." 

See, for a case of an woman, Mark 5:25-34: 

There was a woman who had had a flow of blood for twelve years . . . She had 
heard the reports about Jesus, and came up behind him in the crowd and touched 
his garment. For she said, "If I touch even his garments, I shall be made well." 
And immediately the hemorrhage ceased; and she felt in her body that she was 
healed of her disease. . . . "Who touched my garments?" . . . And he said to her, 
"Daughter, your faith has made you well; go in peace, and be healed of your 
disease." 



101 



Jesus: "Your faith has made you well." 186 The healing proclamation seemed to promote 
human dignity and spiritual imagination that human spirituality or faith could affect and 

1 87 

heal human physical state. 

In short, the threefold phenomenon, or reality of the new paradigm, seemed to 
show inclusive relationship, dialogical-religious life, and spiritual faith image of the Jews 
at the time of Jesus. I have argued here that it should be symbolic of the very human 
relationship, life, and image in the world of life. 



4. Principle 

What was the principle of the new paradigm that both Jesus and his Jewish people 
held in common? This question is also asking us to question what Jesus' paradigm of 
ministry was. The reason is that the principle refers to the explanatory premise of one 
paradigm from a logical point of view. In a sense, Jesus' paradigm of ministry can be 



I Of 

See Matthew 9:22 for such a case. 

1 87 

See, for clues to understand new Jewish spirituality, John: "It is the spirit that 
gives life, the flesh is of no avail: the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life." 
(6:63) "If on the sabbath a man receives circumcision, so that the law of Moses may not 
be broken, are you angry with me because on the sabbath I made a man's whole body 
well?" (7:23) "We know that God does not listen to sinners, but if any one is a worshiper 
of God and does his will, God listens to him." (9:31) 



102 



simplified in the following logical schema. If Jesus believed that God is living and 
expressing perfect love and that the human image of God can be re-created by such a life 
system, then he would express a holistic system of love in the world of socio-cultural life. 
Jesus believed that God wants human beings to love as he does as well as says. 
Therefore, Jesus created a threefold-socio-cultural system of love that enabled his fellow 
Jews to be re-created in the very human relationship, life, and image according to God's 
dual love commandment. 

The principle reflects the assumption that the human image of God should be 
understood in the divine semantics of love, re-created in divine systemic love, and 
explained by the divine holism of love. In short, Jesus' paradigm of ministry constituted 
a divine semantic, systemic, and holistic since it was understandable in his dual love 
commandment, in a divine organic relationship of the world of socio-cultural life, and in 
the whole divine ministry of Jesus. 



5. Conclusion 

Jesus' paradigm of ministry was characterized by his historical course of action in 
ministry. The formative period of the paradigm seemed to be about three years: from his 



103 



age of thirty to his earthly death and resurrection. 185 The paradigm now is recorded in 
Matthew for us as the way and the ministerial imperative that disciples should follow to 
make fellow disciples of all nations. "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, 
baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching 
them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close 
of the age." (28:19-20) 

I believe that my paradigmatic schema of Jesus ministry can provide one re- 
creational interpretation of "all that Jesus commanded us disciples." Given my 
understanding of Jesus' paradigm of ministry, whoever wants to be an effective and joyful 
disciple or minister should follow our Lord Jesus Christ's successful way of ministry 
without difficulty. This is not because my paradigmatic schema is a perfect interpretation 
of Jesus' ministry, but because I myself firmly believe the imperative power in his 



1 RR 

I adopt a method of Jewish calendar to calculate the historical years according 
to Paul W. Barnett and R. Orlett's useful idea. The both note "Passover." See, for the 
ministry start age of Jesus, Luke 3:23 "Jesus, when he began his ministry, was about 
thirty years of age, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph." See, for the records of 
Jewish Passover, John: "The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to 
Jerusalem." (2:13) "Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand." (6:4) "Six 
days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus had 
raised from the dead." (12:1) 

Paul W. Barnett, Jesus and the Logic of History (Grand Rapids: William B. 
Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997): 113-14. See also, for R. Orlett's article, New 
Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: McGrow-Hill Book Company, 1967). (s. v. "The 
Historical Jesus") 



104 



ministerial guaranty, "Lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age.' 1 

In conclusion, the following paraphrase is my interpretation of this mandate to re- 
create the very human relationship, life, and image and to make disciples of all nations, 

including my fellow Koreans: 

Ministry in a broad sense is disciples' dual work starting as that begins with 
being baptized in the name of the triune God, keeping as that continues by 
re-creating the very human relationship, life, and image in all that Jesus 
exemplified, and culminates by dramatizing all the acts or images that Jesus 
performed and commanded at table, in dialogue, and in healing. 



My basic motivation for this chapter: "He who believes in me will also do the 
works that I do" (John 14:12) 



105 



PARTH 
A WORSHIP MODEL FOR KOREANS 



I will deal with the Korean worship reality and new desire or spirit from a socio-cultural 
point of view, noting Korean worship problems and recent religious inquiry. And I will 
present a "Jesus worship model" for Koreans in light of pastoral care, dramatizing Jesus' 
paradigm of ministry. 



CHAPTER A 
EXAMINING A KOREAN WORSHIP REALITY 
A SOCIO-CULTURAL ANALYSIS 



1. Introduction 

Korean Christianity 185 is delineated by two different terms, Catholicism 190 and 



1 RQ 

Donald N. Clark, Culture and Customs of Korea (Westpoint: Greenwood Press, 



2000), 47-48. 



190 r~* 

Catholicism is called as an old religion since receiving Korean table manners 

106 



Protestantism 191 , and is identified with the latter socio-culturally. Thus Catholicism is 
naturally excluded when dealing with a socio-cultural analysis of Korean worship To 
identify Korean Christians with Korean Protestants and Korean worship with Korean 
Protestant worship here seems to be desirable in order to deal with and understand Korean 
reality in worship. 

The Korean Protestant ministry at the beginning was deeply related in the Korean 
socio-cultural phenomenon as a table, preaching, and healing relationship, life, event, 
system, and/or worship, and left most Koreans with an impression of that "Christianity 
transforms Korean socio-cultural life and/or system." Unfortunately, most Korean 
Christians, however, are still keeping Confucian manners in their table relationship 
although rejecting Confucian table-centered worship for ancestors. They also seem to 



and memorial service for ancestors from Confucianism as well as Korean drinking and 
smoking habit as a socio-cultural system. Catholicism is never named as Christianity in 
Korea generally since the historical policy leaves Koreans with an impression of 
"Catholicism is indifferent to human socio-cultural life." More information of Korean 
Catholicism is shown in Don Baker's "Christianity "Koreanized,"" in Nationalism and the 
Construction of Korean Identity, Korea Research Monograph 26, ed. Hyung II Pai and 
Timothy R. Tangherlini (Berkeley: The Regents of the University of California. 1999), 112. 

Protestantism is called as Christianity since rejecting Korean memorial service 
for ancestors and drinking and smoking habit as ancestor worship and as a cancer on 
socio-cultural life respectively. Protestantism is identified with Christianity as a rule in 
Korea. See, for detailed information of Korean Protestantism, Don Baker's "Christianity 
"Koreanized,"" 118. 

1 92 

In-Gyeong Kim Lundell, Bridging the Gaps' Contextuaiization Among Korean 

107 



keep Confucian manners in preaching worship, identifying a preacher with a Confucian 
teacher. They also seem to see their healing relationship in terms of Confucian 



materialism. 194 



Why does Korean ministry not transform even Korean Christians? It seems to 
be very necessary to question Korean Christianity how to transform Korean Christians 
socio-culturally. They are a fourth of the population 19 in South Korea. Korean 
Christianity has been over one hundred years 196 since Korean ministry or worship first 
took root in the Korean society and culture Confucianized. The question can be simply 

1 Q"7 

answered by examining Korean worship since ministry is identified with Christian dual 
relationship and/or life culminating as dramatizing, worshiping, or observing all images 



Nazarene Churches in America, Asian Thought and Culture (New York: Peter Lang. 1995), 
65. 

193 Ibid., 63. 

194 Ibid., 67. 

195 Donald N. Clark, 30. 

In-Gyeong Kim Lundell, 63. 

An interpretation of Matthew 28: 19-20 "Go therefore and make disciples of 
all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 
teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to 
the close of the age." 

He [Jesus] said to him [A Lawyer], "You shall love the Lord your God with all 
your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the great and first 

108 



that Jesus performed and commanded at table, in dialogue, and in healing, as well as 
starting by being baptized in the name of the Triune God and continuing by practicing, re- 
creating, or teaching the very human relationship, life, and image in all that Jesus lived, 
exemplified, or commanded. On the point, I will first describe here how Korean worship 
is under the section title of "Korean worship." 

My methodologies of examining Korean worship are dual: epistemic 200 or 
experiential and epistemological 201 or hermeneutic. A worship event itself is the 
experiential or epistemic foundation depending on its context. Thus to examine Korean 
worship means making clear the Korean epistemic or experiential foundation of worship. 



commandment. And a second is like it. You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On 
these two commandments depend all the law and the prophets." (Matthew 22:37-40) 

"Whenever you enter a town and they receive you. eat . . . heal . . . and say to 
them." (Luke 10:8-9) 

A philosophical definition of "epistemic" is shown in Dictionary of Philosophy 
edited by Dagobert D. Runes (New York: Philosophical Library, 1942): "Epistemic- (Gr. 
Episteme, knowledge) Relating to knowledge." (93) 

See, for a conceptual distinction between epistemic and epistemological, 
Dictionary of Philosophy- 

Epistemological Objects'- The object envisaged by an act of knowledge whether 
the knowledge be veridical, illusory or even hallucinatory in contrast to 
ontological object, which is a real thing corresponding to the epistemological 
object when knowledge is veridical. (93) 

What I note is "epistemic" as a focused on natural experience itself and 
"epistemological" as a focused on relational validity between knowledge and its object. 



109 



It also means doing a socio-cultural analysis of Korean worship since Koreans here 
are defined as persons of Korean descent who can speak and understand Korean, know the 
positive and negative meanings of religion in Korean society, and understand the cultural 
phenomena. I argue that there is socio-culturally common thought, systems, and values 
of Koreans, whether young or old, dominating even Korean worship. It will be 

• • • 7()4 

appropriate to examine Korean worship in Confucianism since Confucianism is 

"Socio-cultural" means traditional and politico-economic sides in the world of 
socio-cultural life. A socio-cultural analysis of ministry can be semantically identified 
with a holistic analysis of ministry. 

A definition of "social" is made by Joe Holland and Peter Henriot, S. J., in their 
Social Analysis' Linking Faith and Justice, revised and enlarged ed. (Maryknoll: Dove 
Communications and Orbis Books, 1996): "The term "society" came to dominance with the 
modern "social question" and the rise of the modern social sciences. It focuses on 
economics and politics." (xii) 

A definition of "cultural" is made by Joe Holland and Peter Henriot, S. J.: "The 
term "civilization," by contrast ["society"], belongs more to deeper tradition in the west. 
"Civilization" connotes greater emphasis on culture, and, within culture, on religion." (xii) 

203 

The Encyclopedia Americana, International ed., vol. 16, s. v. "Korea: 8. The 
Republic of Korea." 

A simple introduction of Confucianism and what "Confucian" implies is made 
by Donald N. Clark: 

Confucianism is a value system that seeks to bring harmony to the lives of people 
in communities-the family, the village, and the state. . . .Confucius (551-479 B.C.) 
lived in the Chinese feudal state of Lu . . . taught that people are not created 
equal and do not become equal throughout their lives. . . .These paradigms [He 
taught] are often referred to as the Confucian "five relationships": ruler/subjects, 
father/son, older/younger, husband/wife, and friend/friend. In all of them but 
one-the relationship between friend and friend, assuming the friends are of 
exactly the same age, gender, and social rank- the relationships are i/r/equal and 
required that the weaker party voluntarily submit to the stranger while the 
stronger exercises nurture and protection over the weaker. (30-31) 

110 



currently the conservative thought, system, and value system of Koreans. I will call that 
system "Confucian myth" 205 here. 

On the other hand, a worship event reflects a Christian epistemological 
understanding of worship since that depends on a Christian epistemological or 
hermeneutic understanding on Jesus' view of life, ministry, and/or worship. Thus to 
examine a Korean worship reality means reading a Korean Christian desire of worship, 
ministry, or life. It also means finding a Korean Christian image of Jesus' holistic 
ministry or worship since Korean epistemological, hermeneutic, or paradigmatic 
understanding on Jesus' course of action itself in ministry is possible in the whole ministry 
of Jesus, in Jesus' commandment, and/or in Jesus' system of ministry. It will be 
to find a holistic image of Jesus' ministry to re-create Korean worship, since such a 
Korean image of Jesus will form Korean holistic, semantic, and systemic worship as well 



205 

A definition of Myth is shown in Longman Dictionary of American English, new 
ed.: "An idea or story that many people believe, but that is not true." (s. v. "myth'") 

206 Matthew 28:20 "All that I have commanded you." 

207 

John 15:12 "This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have 
loved you . . . They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world." 

Luke 10:8-9 "Whenever you enter a town and they receive you, eat . . . 
heal . . . and say to them." 



Ill 



as ministry. I will call this image "contemporary spirit." 

In short, this chapter 209 deals with Korean worship reality in socio-cultural 
crisis 210 and finds a Korean Christian desire for worship, describing Korean worship from 
my socio-cultural point of view, creating a myth to show what the Korean worship 

Oil 

problem is, and studying a recent religious inquiry of Korean Christians. 

209 This chapter can be read to deal with the Korean church as a worship 
community of memory, praxis, and hope socio-culturally or holistically. Such a reading 
of Confucian myth will discover what Korean Christian traditional worship is and what 
Korean Christian memory, praxis, and hope of Jesus' ministry are. Such a reading of 
contemporary spirit will also discover what current Korean Christian desire of worship is 
and what contemporary memory, praxis, and hope of Jesus' ministry will be in Korean 
Christianity. 

A good explanation of what worship crisis implies is made by Don E. Saliers in 
his Worship and Spirituality (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1984): 

The crisis in worship, then, is part of a larger cultural crisis that has thrown 
Christians back upon their own roots. . . . Yet all the while the ""crisis of 
meaning" is related directly to the absence of living memory, story, and ritual 
patterns in our lives; more specifically, to the absence of belonging to a 
community lived in praise of God. . . . Worship is something done in the world, 
but it is linked to the teachings and practices of the Christian life. (32~33) 

Such a crisis of Korean Christians or churches in Confucianism is implicitly 
written in In-Gyeong Kim Lundell's: 

The principle of hierarchical relationships became the highest human and social 
value. The Yi Dynasty fossilized Neo-Confucianism as an ideological basis for 
social order, land refoms, and a centralized hierarchical state. . . . These 
hierarchical relationships necessitated a title oriented society. The all - 
important title bestowed status to the individual. Even today Koreans call each 
other by the title of a present job or former position, such as "teacher," 
"president," "section chief," "department chief," "pastor," "elder," "deacon," or 
"director" followed by their family name. (58) 

211 

Myth analysis as an example of cultural hermeutic is well introduced by Elsa 
Tamez in her "Cultural Violence against Women in Latin America," in Women Resisting 

112 



2. Korean Worship 

Korean Christian table relationship on Sunday noon has been considered as a 
very important thing at Korean Christian communities or churches since the relationship 
symbolizes Korean communal atmosphere. Korean mealtime has been taken out of 
worship and it is controlled by Confucian table manners. Free church meals on Sunday 
noon have been practiced in small churches and paid meals in middle and large churches. 
However, the church ministers, elders, teachers, choir members, and persons on clerical 
duty have always been considered as hosts or hostesses that have free passes and priorities. 
The church mealtime has been begun to work with grace being said by the church minister. 
"Elder first" has worked in such a way at most Korean Christian tables. It seems to be a 
Korean interpretation of the following Jesus' aphorism: "The laborer deserves his wages." 
(Luke 10:7) 

The Eucharist generally has been observed two times a year as special church 



Violence, ed. Mary John Mananzan et al. (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1996): "One way of 
beginning a critique of the cultural violence within one's own culture would be an analysis 
of the myths which form the basis of society." (13) 

Most small churches serve a regular church meal on Sunday noon. Middle 
and large size churches flexibly serve a church meal since many congregational members 
see the meal as a matter of personal choice. Many Korean Christians of middle and large 
churches in fact avoid the church meal because of individual reasons. However, no one 
avoids the church meal if this does not imply ecclesial sacrifice or restriction. 



113 



worship. 213 The reason Korean churches have observed the Eucharist only two times a 
year is that they have observed closed Communion and that the public distinction between 
baptized members and not-baptized members has been considered as an obstacle to church 
growth. The Eucharist and the Sunday church meal have operated under the theology of 
salvation and under Confucianism respectively, i.e., as the sacred and the earthly. 

Korean Christian regular worship has been identified with preacher-centered 
worship. 214 Such Korean worship has had at least three stages and pulpits. 215 One 
important order has been given to an elder to pray for the preacher's powerful message 



See The Constitution, Korean ed. (Seoul: The Korea Evangelical Holiness 
Church Publishing Company, 1998), 19. 

A view of interpreting such preacher- or minister-centered worship as a 
unitarian view is made by James B. Torrance in his Worship, Community & the Triune God 
of Grace (Downers Grove: Inter Varsity Press, 1996): 

We sit in the pew watching the minister "doing his thing," exhorting us "to do our 
thing," until we go home thinking we have done our duty for another week! This 
kind of do-it-yourself-with-the-help-of-the-minister worship is what our 
forefathers would have called "legal worship" and not "evangelical worship"- 
what the ancient church would have called Arian or Pelagian and not truly 
catholic. It is not Trinitarian. Bishop Lesslie Newbigin has commented that 
when the average Christian in this country hears the name of God, he or she 
does not think of the Trinity. After many years of missionary work in India 
among Eastern religions, he returned to find that much worship in the West is in 
practice, if not in theory, unitarian. (20) 

Such a simple example of a Korea Presbyterian Church is presented in Alvin 
Sneller's The Secret of Korea Church Growth, Korean ed. (Seoul: The Korean 
Reformative Association of Faith and Deeds, 1992), 71-73. 



114 



before proclaiming God's word. Another important order has been given to a deacon to 
pray for the church offering and to gather it after the proclamation. The highest stage 
and pulpit has been considered for church ministers. The middle stage and pulpit has 
been considered for elders and the bottom or first stage and pulpit for deacons and 
laypersons. Every sermon has been sanctified and considered as a dogma or ideology of 
church politics and education. 

Korean Christian healing worship generally has been held two or three times a 
year as church special worship or in revivals. Korean Christians have been required by 
their revivalists to contribute money according to their faith, i.e., their healing hopes. 
Especially, church elders have met such expectations or quantification for becoming 
models and for winning their revivalists', healers', and/or church ministers' favor. 
Likewise, whoever wants to win their healers' favor should meet such an expectation 



9 1 fi 

Korean Christian preaching worship has strengthened church's religious 
ideologies or dogmas. Preacher-centered worship of Korean churches has grown up the 
church size with anti-communist sermons and undergone hardships with pro-nationalistic 
sermons. Korean Christian religious identities can be divided into two according to 
church ministers or preachers: conservative individualist and individual liberalist. And 
moreover, most Korean ministers or preachers in fact have presented their church 
members with a kind of a law of survival and ruled over their churches according to their 
persuasive power of sermons. This implies that Korean ministers have seen the ministry 
as a social position to classify Christian members in a new community not to form a 
classless community. 



115 



since such an expression has been identified with proof, visualization, or quantification of 
faith. 217 Korean healing worship has been held on such a way, i.e. under materialism of 
faith. 218 



3. Confucian Myth 

Confucian myth is a narrative I have created in light of Confucianism and from a 
socio-cultural point of view to make clear the reality of Korean worship or Korean 
worship problem. The myth will show what its purpose is, how its practice is, and what 
its principle is in Confucianized Korean worship. ' We can easily understand Korean 
worship in crisis, noting the purpose, method, and principle of the Confucian myth and 
analyzing or examining a Korean worship narrative from a socio-cultural point of view, 



217 v 

Korean Christian healing worship has strengthened and developed Korean 
Christian consciousness of economy. The tithe and the logic of compatibility between 
faith and physical representation have changed Korean Christian life of economy. Thus 
Korean church size either symbolizes or can be identified with the economic conditions or 
levels of its members. 

In fact, most Korean ministers or healers have discriminatively concerned 
about faith development or economic development of their congregations and Korean 
Christians, who have sensitively reacted to discriminative consideration and love of their 
ministers or healers, according to their development. 

2 19 t> 

Ecclesiastically, the purpose, practice, and principle can be read as hope, 
praxis, and memory of the church respectively. 

220 

I will employ philosophical analysis or hermeneutic understanding to carry out 

116 



a holistic point of view, or in three aspects of worship according to Jesus' holistic system 
of ministry: fellowship, preaching, and healing aspects in relation to worship. That is, 
Korean worship in crisis will be examined or made clear through its contextual analyses 
Let us first think of the following Confucian myth. 



[CONFUCIAN MYTH] 

A HIERARCHICALLY HARMONIZED COMMUNITY IS ACCOMPLISHED BY 
DISCRIMINATORY HUMAN RELATIONSHIP ACCORDING TO ITS 
INTELLECTUAL NORM. 



The purpose of the myth: a hierarchically harmonized community. 

The method of realizing the myth: supporting discriminatory human relationship. ' 



a socio-cultural analysis on Korean worship in Confucianism in linguistic contexts in light 
of Hermeneutics. 



Lundell: 



22 1 

A simple summary of the purpose is well presented by In~Gyeong Kim 



The Confucian ideology adopted by the Yi Dynasty promoted "ruler-subject'' 
values, such as loyalty to one's ruler, filial piety to one's parents, a hierarchical 
relationship and subordination of wife to husband, younger friend to older friend, 
and younger brother to elder brother (Chung 1982: 100). These values all 
maintain vertical relationships, which set the roles of ruler and subject through 
all of society. (84) 

222 

Ibid.: "Proper worship of heaven, nature and ancestors was vital to maintaining 



the harmony of the cosmic order." (84) 



117 



22"? 

The principle of the myth: intellectual normativism. 

Why is this a myth? A hierarchically harmonized community will form a 
pyramid society according to hierarchy or the order of ranks. It will justify 
discriminatory distribution, speech control, and discriminatory relationship. Such a 
community will be a courteous or polite community for nobles if it can be realized. 
However, appearance of equality makes clear that such a community is not harmonized 
but in fact natural. The following verse indicates why the purpose or the hierarchically 
harmonized community cannot be accomplished today: "For in eating, each one goes 
ahead with his own meal, and one is hungry and another is drunk." (1 Corinthians 11:21) 

Supporting discriminatory human relationships means symbolizing the essence of 
community life according to the Confucian five relationships. ~ It will promote male- 



223 Ibid. 

According to this concept complete subordination of a son to his father and a 
wife to her husband were absolute expectations. Violating this order was 
considered disruptive rebellion against the laws of nature and norms of the 
society and, therefore, was strictly sanctioned (Hei Chu Kim 1982'. 94). 
Absolute subordination was thus a cardinal virtue and the predominant moral 
code of filial piety. (84) 

Such a natural community is under the law of the jungle. See Chang Tae 
Kum's Confucian Thought and Culture, A Series of Oriental Culture, vol. 7, Korean ed. 
(Seoul: Traditional Culture Study, Corporation, 1996), 34. 

ope 

In-Gyeong Kim Lundell: 



118 



centered, paternalistic, and discriminatory life and/or relationship and exclude all kinds of 
subordinate positions, diverse opinions, and inferior entities from the worship stage. 
Such a worship stage will therefore form a somewhat hierarchic community. However, 
sexual equality makes clear that such a stage is not communal but in fact factional. ' It 
will be evidence of the impossibility of the method of realizing such Confucian worship. 
In fact, Korean worship does not exist without Korean women today. Thus the 
"Confucian myth" is not an adequate model for the church today. 

Intellectual normativism implies that there is an intellectual law of human 
relationship. It explains why the human process is disregarded, what human rank implies, 
and what unqualified persons should do. Such a law will form a somewhat organic 
community. However, reconsideration of the human image makes clear that such a 



The five fundamental relationships are sovereign to subject, father to son, 
husband to wife, elder to younger, and friend to friend. To keep proper 
relationship between these pairs, Confucius lad down the five articles of morality 
and ethics: intimacy, differences, righteousness, obedience, and faithfulness. 

(57) 

ope 

See I Corinthians 1:12 "What I mean is that each one of you says, "I belong to 
Paul," or "I belong to Apolos," or "I belong to Cephas," or "I belong to Christ." 

227 

See the following analogy of human image again: 
In the world there are animal-like people. For example, lion-like-people would 
say that human beings have to learn the social image of ants. However, those people are 
never willing to imitate such an image for themselves, want rather to reign over others as 
the ruler of the jungle. In other words, those people learn the law of the jungle for 
themselves and imitate the image of the natural rulers. How is the life possible? The 

119 



law is not organic but in fact individual, competitive, or natural. It will explain why the 
principle of Confucian intellectual normativism does not work completely. No 
community can exist without human process, expression, and cooperation of life. 

Let us then think deeply of the following Confucian worship narrative most 
Korean Christians should be familiar with in performing in their communities or churches. 
The narrative will explain what a Korean worship problem is or how such a problem is a 
reflection of the Confucian myth. In particular, I will explain why the narrative is 
Confucian and why such worship in the Confucian myth is at stake. 



reason is that those people have a sense of their own superiority to others. And human 
experiential reason is to remain in its natural community not to create a new community. 

Naturalized moral obligation implies seeing human beings as the naturals not as 
being created in God's image, i.e., that it is natural that one should discriminate one's 
companions, human beings, according to their socio-cultural positions, classes, or races. 
In a sense, the image of animals makes human beings cruel animals and devaluates the 
human beings. What a stupid person he or she who wants to be under the control of 
others! Is this not "wild?" 

People who identify the image of human beings with the image of animals have to 
confront the following question: why did God not create Adam and Eve in the image of 
animals? 

See also Matthew 23:1-3, 23 for Jesus' analogy of human image: 

Then said Jesus to the crowds and to his disciples, "The scribes and the 
Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; so practice and observe whatever they tell you, 
but not what they do; for they preach, but do not practice. . . . Woe to you, 
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mind and dill and cumin, and 
have neglected the weightier matters of the law, justice and mercy and faith: 
these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. 



120 



998 

[A Confucian Worship Narrative] 

Let us sit at church table according to "elder first." 2 ' Elders can be discerned 

910 

through their garments, possessions, and/or name cards, not by their physical age. So 
make an effort to enter the governmental service, to be a rich man, and/or to have a higher 

91 1 

degree to take a place of honor at the table yet. Korean worship comes to a crisis 

whenever ministers and elders enjoy their hierarchic, exclusive, or authoritative positions 
at the table and exclude the table relationship itself from worship. This is the way to 
inscribe social and religious discrimination and to divide Christian life between worship 

919 

and ordinary life. Korean worship could not include the discrimination at table since 



Please note that this is a Confucian assumption. 

229 M#jH /^ *o V -fr-rf A 1 <Chang-You-You-Seo>. A definition of <Chang-You- 
You~Seo> is shown in New Concise Korean Dictionary, Korean ed. (Seoul: Dong-A 
Publishing Company, 1976): "An ethical concept, one of the five cardinal articles of 
Confucian morality, there is order between young and old." (s. v. "^Hi-fi"*]") 

In-Gyeong Kim Lundell: 

These hierarchical relationships necessitated a title oriented society. The all- 
important title bestowed status to the individual. Even today Koreans call each 
other by the title of a present job or former position, such as "teacher," 
"president," "section chief," "department chief," "pastor," "elder," "deacon," or 
"director" followed by their family name. (58) 

Originally, women are excluded in Confucian system of rite. Since language 
and action are exalted and despised in Confucianism respectively according to educational 
degrees, table-centered worship is still not practiced yet in Korean worship like women 
are excluded in Confucian worship although they have got all worship dinner ready. 

232 

That implies that Korean ministry has interpreted the meaning of rejecting 

121 



Korean ministers do not want to vividly show such an image in their worship. Korean 
Christians now seem to have a picture of a remarkable table for ministers and/or elders 
and many others for many laypersons out of worship. 

Learners should not step on even the shadows of their teachers. No one is 
smarter than one's teacher. It is important that teachers here are always right. No 
teacher notes his 234 learners' or students' educational fruits because he believes the results 
always are different and the same result from different starting points is educationally 
senseless. Likewise, Korean preachers have inviolable rights in preaching ministry and 
worship. Most Koreans believe that educational obedience " or linguistic affirmation 
has formed Korean churchianity or ecclesiasticism, party spirit, or factionalism. Korean 
worship comes to a crisis whenever Korean Christian preachers egocentrically enjoy such 



Korean memorial service for ancestors passively and negatively, separating worship from 
real life. That is, Korean Christians think that one should follow discriminatory, 
hierarchic, family-centered, and/or exclusive table manners in their daily life. 

233 

Such an exclusion or discrimination at tables threatens equality and openness 
of human basic relationship. Korean Christians get used to holding their tables and seats 
according to their socio-cultural circumstances and positions. 

Originally, women are excluded in Confucian system of education. 

This implies that Korean ministry has raised its preachers in Confucian 
hierarchy. 

The Reporter Group of the Korea Christian Newspaper, Truth and Falsehood 
of the Korean Church, Korean ed., vol. III. (Seoul: Kumran Publishing Co., 1993), 170. 



122 



a close, one-sided, or dogmatic leadership from their pulpits. ~ This is the way to break 
their congregational desire for dialogue. The situation in preaching ministry and worship 
threatens the Christian dialectic and dialogical relationship forming one's very religious 
identity. Korean Christians are used to preacher-centered worship. Korean preaching 
worship now seems to be a party or a meeting of religious doctrinal people agreeing to the 
preacher's ideology. 

Let us improve the physical environment for our healthy spirit. Anyone who is 
sticking around a physically unclean environment should be healed by destroying his or 
her unhealthy environment. * However, one who is uneasy even is a good environment 
should rather have a better physical environment to return to his or her normal state 
morally. Likewise, Korean healing ministry, i.e. Korean revival, has dealt with the sick 
people according to their socio-cultural situations or positions. Korean worship comes to 
a crisis of agape, unconditional love, whenever ministers or healers, i.e. revivalists, 
practice discrimination in their culture-laden healing relationships. This is the way to 



237 Alvin Sneller, 71-73. 

Ooo 

Originally, women are included in healing relationship. A sinner here is 
understood in natural selection like what harmartia implies. And healing here is 
understood as a kind of an intellectual compensation. 



123 



distort their congregational concern of spirituality and to classify their companion 
Christians or congregational members. Korean Christians are used to socio-cultural, 
environmental, or materialistic healing worship or relationship. In this way healing 
worship now seems to show a type of materialism, i.e., a physical spirituality. 

In short, Korean Christian worship is authoritative, hierarchic, or exclusive in 
relationship, as seen symbolically at the table relationship, close, one-sided, or dogmatic 
from the pulpit, and discriminatory culture-laden or materialistic in the healing situation 

Why is such a Korean worship narrative Confucian 9 First, Korean Christian 
authoritative, hierarchic, or exclusive relationship at the table has continually produced 
social and religious discrimination. This attitude has been considered to be a tacit 
worship order. This discrimination comes basically from Confucian "perfect virtue" or 
"discriminative love." According to A Dictionary of Korean Religion and Culture, 
Confucian perfect virtue or conditional love is the fundamental thought that attaches 
importance to developmentally diverse processes. 240 It justifies discrimination. Most 
Koreans know and/or accept that the Confucian concept of "perfect love" is premised on 

239 t *] <In> 

The Institute of Korean Religion and Society, A Dictionary of Korean Religion 
and Culture, Korean ed. (Seoul: Jipmundang, 1991), 499. 

124 



careerism or a social and national hierarchy through competitive examination. 

Second, Korean Christian preachers' closed, one-sided, or dogmatic leadership 
from their pulpit has produced collective, social, or religious factionalism. This basically 

**} AD 

comes from Confucian "natural theory of the human nature." According to A 

Dictionary of Korean Religion and Culture, Confucianism assumes that every one has his 
or her own true nature. Most Koreans know and/or accept that such a theory 
educationally or ideologically promotes their collective consciousness according to 
memberships. 

Third, Korean Christian culture-laden care or healing relationship has produced 
cultural or economic classification. This basically comes from the Confucian "theory of 
human temperament." 244 According to A Dictionary of Korean Religion and Culture, it 
is natural for a human being to have worldly or physical desires since every one has his or 



In-Gyeong Kim Lnndell: "Kwageo System. Kwageo is a bureaucratic 
examination or civil examination to enter officialdom. . . . This system was abolished in 
1895, though the Kwageo mentality has continued into modern days in the form of an 
elitist school system. . . . even after they immigrate to America." (58-59) 

~fe %$.£/&. ^r^*]^ <Born-Yeon-Ji-Seong>. A definition of <Born-Yeon-.Ii- 
Seong> is shown in New Concise Korean Dictionary, Korean ed. (Seoul: Dong- A 
Publishing Company, 1976): "A phrase. One's true nature." (s. v. "•£r < ?!*] > $") 

The Institute of Korean Religion and Society, 499. 



244 



WMZ'& 71^*]^ <Ki-Jil-Ji-Seong> 



125 



her own temperament. 245 Most Koreans know and/or accept that such a theory justifies 
materialism and cultural or economic classification in the world of human life. 

What we should note here is that the three sides of the Confucian relationship or 
leadership cannot be separate from one another. It means that Korean worship is faced 
with one crisis, not three crises: Confucianism or Confucian worship. 

Why is such worship at stake? It can be simply explained by answering how 
such worship is a reflection from Confucianized Korean daily life today. In a recent 
article of The Korea Times, Matthew Still, a doctoral student in Politics from Australia at 
SungKyunKwan University, 246 Seoul, Korea, rightly points out that ''Koreans are 

94*7 

unconcerned about relationship with others unless they have interests in the matter." 
Still's indication gives a hint of what is at stake with Confucianized Korean worship and 
shows what a Confucianized Korean problem is in relationship of daily life today. 
Thoughtful lifestyle here in Confucianism is for the intellectual who has achieved his or 
her own intellectual development. If not this case, such a lifestyle for others is rather 



The Institute of Korean Religion and Society, 499-500. 



246 



http://www.skku.ac.kr . 



Matthew Still. "Korea Inner Manner- Japan Outer Manner," The Korea Times, 



8 January 2002. 



126 



blamed in the name of ugliness even by his or her family. 248 Likewise, Confucianized 
Korean Christians, in other words, do not acknowledge how their hierarchic, preacher- 
centered, and materialistic worship has produced their lifestyles of exclusion, passivity, 
and materialism. The reason is that human experiential reason is always to remain in its 
natural community. In other words, naturalized obligation implies seeing human beings 
as the naturals, i.e., that it is natural that one should discriminate one's companions, 
human beings, according to their socio-cultural positions, classes, or races. 

Why is it problematic? It is due to the Confucian premise that bearers of moral 
duties or manners are not all but the moral-little people. 249 It should be a reflection of 
Korean Christians' discriminatory relationship and worship. In other words, a cardinal 
problem of Confucianized Korean worship is that it ignores Jesus' inclusive, dialogical, 
spiritual relationship as found in the gospels and cannot heal the Korean relationship 
problem of daily life, i.e., the cruel or wild competition to take a place of honor. 



Confucianism says two ways for youth: a way of intellectual learning and the 
other way of the moral-little people. The point of the Confucian problem today comes 
from that every one thinks his or her way is of intellectual learning not of the moral-little 
people. What a stupid person he or she who wants to be under the control of others! 
This is the foundation or the motive of Korean careerism, i.e., the wild human relationship, 
life, and image. 

"The moral-little people" means that the less are bearers of moral duties. 

Means Confucian Korean epistemic or experiential limitation. 

127 



4. Contemporary Spirit 

Most Korean Christians, according to a January 2002 Inquiry, " acknowledge 
themselves in wandering from Jesus Christ and the Bible's teaching for worship, in life, 
and/or in ministry. It directly shows the contemporary spirit that they desire. It is in 

a word a Bible-centered or Jesus Christ-centered worship or life. Let me suggest now 
this is so. 

First, according to a recent article of The Korean Christian Press, the eighty 
eight percent of Christian leaders and laypersons think negatively of the Korean Christian 
community or church split. It implies that most Korean Christians realize their 

misunderstanding of the Christian table relationship, i.e., the community meal and the 
Eucharist or Communion, and may desire to know something about Jesus' table 
relationship. 

Let us think deeply about this fact. (1) It was a gross mistake that Korean 



"The Korea Christian Society of Ministers 1000 Inquiry," The Korean 
Christian Press, U.S.A. ed., 12 January 2002. 

Means that they have their own de-Confucianized, Bible-centered, 
epistemological, or hermeneutic understanding of worship, life, and/or ministry. 

253 See the CHART A. OF THE KOREAN CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY OR CHURCH 
SPLIT in APPENDICES. 



128 



Christians interpreted the meaning of rejecting Korean memorial service for ancestors 
passively and negatively, separating worship and ordinary life and excluding table 
relationship or worship itself from their worship. Such a mistake has disorganized the 
Korean Christian sense of unity. 

(2) It seems to be a significant mistake that Korean Christians divided their table 
relationship into ordinary or socio-cultural meal and ritual or worship Communion. Such 
a mistake has weakened the importance of inclusiveness, openness, or oneness as found in 
Jesus' open table relationship and produced the present circumstances of the Korean 
Christian split. Jesus, according to the gospels, never divided his table relationship 
between daily life and worship: "Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, 
and broke it, and gave it to the disciples . . . And he took a cup, and when he had given 
thanks he gave it to them." (Matthew 26:26-27) 

(3) Contemporary Korean Christians should want socio-cultural difference 
ignored in their table relationship or worship, noting Jesus' open table relationship or 
ministry: "As he [Jesus] sat at table in the [Matthew the tax collector] house, behold, many 
tax collectors and sinners came and sat down with Jesus and his disciples.' 1 (Matthew 
9:10) Such a contemporary spirit will promote the Korean Christian sense of 

129 



inclusiveness, openness, or oneness. 

(4) Contemporary Korean Christians should interpret the Eucharist or 
Communion as symbolic of God's love to the world or of the Incarnation and of Jesus 
event. "This is my body and this is my blood," means materializing or symbolizing 
God's love. (Matthew 26:26, 28) "I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine until 
that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom," means that this verse 
symbolizes Jesus event. 254 Such a contemporary spirit of symbolism will promote 

9 S S 

Korean Christian practice of unity or oneness not of ecclesial sacrifice. 

(5) Contemporary Korean Christians should welcome that the whole of Jesus' 
open table relationship, i.e., not only the Eucharist or Communion but also Christian meal, 
is worshipped. "Do this in remembrance of me" orders such worship. (Luke 22:19) 
Such a contemporary spirit of open table worship will make contemporary Korean 
Christians experience Jesus' inclusive or open worship at their table. 

Second, according to The Korean Christian Press, sixty-five percent of Christian 
leaders and laypersons think negatively of the discord or inconsistency between their own 
254 Matthew 26:29 

255 

Confucianized Korean worship has emphasized the importance of 
ecclesiastically functional sacrifice. 

130 



faith and social life or action or between their religious understanding and socio-cultural 
experience. 256 It implies that many Korean Christians realize their distortion of Christian 
dialogical relationship and worship and may desire to know something about Jesus 1 
preaching ministry and relationship. 

Let us examine of them. (1) It is an important problem that a preacher has had 
an inviolable authority and listeners have occupied passive or subordinate positions in 
preaching worship, having identified Obedience " with hierarchic obedience. Such a 
problem has strengthened inequality in dialogue and deformed Korean Christian religious 
identity. 259 

(2) Contemporary Korean Christians know too well that obedience refers to the 
object of preaching worship, i.e., God or His will, and that their preaching worship 



256 See the CHART B. OF THE KOREAN CHRISTIAN CHURCH PROBLEMS in 
APPENDICES. 

OCT 

Obedience is better than sacrifice, and submission than the fat of rams. (I 
Samuel 15:22) 

It means preacher-centered worship. See Alvin Sneller, 71-73. 

Korean Christians themselves have been compelled to embrace their 
preacher's linguistic affirmation or educational obedience of unconditional faith. They 
now question such a groundless and powerless faith. 

"For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother, and sister. 



and my mother" implies the point. (Matthew 12:50) 



131 



itself should be practiced in dialogue between worshippers, i.e. preachers and listeners, as 
well as between them and God. "With many such parables he [Jesus] spoke the word to 
them, as they were able to hear it; . . . privately to his own disciples he explained 
everything" implies such a Christian narrative-dialogical relationship. Such a 

contemporary spirit of dialogue will promote the Korean Christian practice of democracy 
or equality not of ecclesial hierarchy. 

(3) Contemporary Korean Christians should believe that Jesus' whole narrative- 
dialogical relationship is worshipped in equally dialogical relationship. "I have called 
you friends, for all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you" orders 
such worship. (John 15:15) Such a contemporary spirit of worship will make Korean 
Christians experience Jesus' equality, dialogue, and religious identity at the narrative 
worship. 

Third, according to The Korean Christian Press, eighty-one percent of Christian 
leaders and laypersons acknowledge their prayer, practice, and commitment as the best 
way relate to their community or church revival. It implies that Korean Christians 



261 Mark 4:33-34 

262 See the CHART C. OF KOREAN CHRISTIAN CHURCH REVIVAL in 
APPENDICES. 

132 



realize their culture-laden care relationship or healing worship is distorted with 
Confucianism and may desire to know something about Jesus' healing ministry and 
relationship. 

Let us examine this situation. (1) It is a serious problem that ministers, 
revivalists, healers, or care givers have experienced Korean culture-laden or 
discriminatory treatment and relationship to the sick people in healing ministry or worship, 
having maltreated the socio-culturally weak and received the socio-culturally strong 
cordially. Such a problem has promoted socio-cultural classification and materialism in 
healing ministry and worship. 

(2) Contemporary Korean Christians should believe that healing experience 
basically relies on the sick person's faith or spirituality of Jesus' healing ministry or power 
"A woman who had suffered from a hemorrhage for twelve years came up behind him and 
touched the fringe of his garment; for she said to herself, "If I only touch his garment, I 
shall be made well." Jesus turned, and seeing her he said, "Take heart, daughter; your 
faith has made you well."" (Matthew 9: 20-22) Such a contemporary spirit of Jesus' 
healing ministry will make Korean Christians experience and proclaim his working 



133 



spiritual power at their healing worship. 



5. Conclusion 

What are the implications of the Korean worship reality examined in this 
chapter? There are two. One is that Korean Christians acknowledge that their 
traditional paradigm of worship is disoriented, as repeated in Confucian myth. The 
Korean traditional paradigm of worship is composed of hierarchic pulpits and materialistic 
healer-sick relationships as directed by in Confucian myth. It explains well why Korean 
Christian table has been eliminated from worship, how Korean Christian preaching 
worship had been preacher-centered, and what Korean Christian healing worship had 
promoted. Its major problem centers in justifying discriminatory, unequal, or conditional 
relationships according to socio-cultural position, hierarchy, and environment. Such an 
experiential or epistemic analysis means that Confucianized Korean worship is disoriented 
and problematic since such worship makes Korean Christians exclude many parts of the 
Bible and them remain in Confucian cruel or wild relationship, life, and spirituality. 

The other implication of the Korean worship reality examined is that Korean 
Christians are strongly hoping to discover a new paradigm of Christian worship, as 

134 



implied in the Contemporary Spirit I have propound. The new paradigm of Christian 
worship can be composed of an inclusive or open table fellowship, an equal and narrative- 
dialogical preaching, and a spiritual and proclamatory healing; stages as dealt with in 
Jesus' Method of Ministry, Chapter B. Defining Jesus' Ministry: Temptation and 
Ministerial Method, Part I: Jesus' Paradigm of Ministry. It seems to be the best 
alternative that Korean Christians should adopt to solve their Confucianized worship 
problem. Such a hermeneutic, epistemological, or paradigmatic understanding of 
Christian worship should make contemporary Korean Christians de-Confucianize their 
traditional paradigm of worship and form and practice a new paradigm of Christian 
worship according to Jesus Christ and the Bible' teaching. 



Ecclesiastically, they can be read as hope, praxis, and memory of the church 



respectively. 



135 



CHAPTER B 
PLANNING A JESUS WORSHIP MODEL FOR KOREAN CHURCHES 
A WORSHIP MODEL AS A HOLISTIC PASTORAL CARE DRAMA 



1. Introduction 

As seen in the previous chapter, EXAMINING A KOREAN WORSHIP 
REALITY, Korean-Christians or churches 264 today want to have a new worship model 
according to Jesus' ministry and imperative. The new model can be compatible with 



Korean-Christians can be identified with Korean-churches, being identified 
with baptized members. Alternatively, Korean-churches cannot be identified with 
Korean-Christians but with an open community composing of Korean-baptized-Christians 
and potential Christians. Refer to John 17:20 "I do not pray for these only, but also for 
those who are to believe in me through their word." Both cases can be used together 
socio-culturally, since they hold the experiential or epistemic foundation of life, ministry, 
or worship in common. See Don E. Saliers' Worship and Spirituality (Philadelphia: The 
Westminster Press, 1984): "The tacit range of meaning available is always selected out by 
the living hermeneutic of the worshiping assembly and given emotional focus in the 
societal perceptions and orientations we have been invited to bring." (55) 

pec 

I read Jesus' ministry a model of Christian ministry as the following words of 
Jesus imply: "For I have given you an example, that you also should do as 1 have done to 
you." (John 13:15) "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that 
have commanded you." (Matthew 28:19-20) 

In a sense, it is right that Louis W. Bloede says in his The Effective Pastor- A 
Guide to Successful Ministry (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996): "The revelation of God 
in Jesus Christ shapes our Christian understanding of worship." (98) 

Jesus' ministry means in a broad sense that his dual relationship or life which 
starts by being baptized in the Holy Spirit of God (Matthew 3:16, John 1:32), continues by 
practicing, re-creating, or teaching the very human image or relationship and the Word of 
God (John 4:32), and will be culminated by his disciples' observance such an image or 

136 



their hermeneutic understanding 266 of Jesus' ministry and heal their experiential distortion, 
i.e. Confucianized worship what made clear which was elucidated in that chapter 

The first task now is to arrange the Korean-Christian system of worship or 
worship components according to Jesus' paradigm of ministry as seen in PART I. 



relationship at table (Luke 5-'30 _ 32), in dialogue (John 8:26), and in healing (Matthew 8:3) 
to make disciples of all nations. 

See New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2d ed. vol. 6, s. v. "Hermeneutics," 789. 
Contemporary Hermeneutics says that there are two ways of understanding meaning of 
humanity: epistemological by a narrative system and ontological by a life system. Ned 
Noddings, Philosophy of Education (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995): "They 
[Philosophers] seek meaning in both texts and life itself as it unfolds historically. ... It 
[Hermeneutical work] pushes us into a holistic practice of sorts." (71-72) Hermeneutic 
possibility of human understanding and life is found in "the similarity between the texts 
and human action, " as Donald Capps says in his Pastoral Care and Hermeneutics, 
Theology and Pastoral Care Series, ed. Don S. Browning (Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 
1984). 37. 

A good explanation of what worship crisis implies is made by Don E. Saliers: 

The crisis in worship, then, is part of a larger cultural crisis that has thrown 
Christians back upon their own roots. . . . Yet all the while the "crisis of 
meaning" is related directly to the absence of living memory, story, and ritual 
patterns in our lives: more specifically, to the absence of belonging to a 
community lived in praise of God. (32) 

The crisis or the major problem of Confucianized Korean worship is on justifying 
discriminative, conditional, or unequal relationship according to socio-cultural position, 
hierarchy, and environment. 

Jesus' course of action itself in ministry as the way disciples or Christians 
should follow. It is holistic (Matthew 28:20), systemic (Luke 10:8-9), and semantic (John 
15:12, 17:16) since it is understandable in the whole ministry of Jesus, in an organic 
relationship of a community, and/or in Jesus' commandment. See Mark Earey's concept 
of paradigm and story in his Worship as Drama, Grove Worship Series (Cambridge: Grove 
Books Limited, April 1997): "There has been a rediscovery in recent years of the Bible as 
'story' and of the Christian life as 'my story' brought into dynamic interaction with this 
paradigm story." (10) 

137 



JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY. I will call this task "components." 

The second task is to make clear an image of Jesus or an image of pastoral care to 
re-create Korean worship 269 according to Jesus' view of worship, and holistic image of 
ministry as seen in the CHAPTER C. UNDERSTANDING JESUS' PARADIGM, PART I 
JESUS' PARADIGM OF MINISTRY. I will call such a task "image and pastoral care," 
since the task of pastoral care is to make a new semantic system, i.e. to recover broken 
human relationships, and an image expresses a semantic position in a social system, i.e. 
constitutes a relational meaning. 

The third task is to form a new drama to re-orient Korean-Christian s or 



pen 

Means disciples' or Christians' holistic drama both to God and with the 
creatures in God's image and as symbolism of real human life according to Jesus. (John 
4:23-24) 

There are many scholars who agree with me on the definition of worship: 
"worship as dual relationship." One of them is Alvin J. Beachy and a simple expression of 
worship is shown in his Worship as Celebration of Covenant and Incarnation (Newton: 
Faith and Life Press. 1968): 

While individuals no doubt received help and comfort and inspiration from the 
corporate worship, the purpose of worship, whether Old Testament, New 
Testament, early Christian, or Anabaptist, was not to make the individual feel 
good, but rather to relate him in love to God and neighbor. (10) 

Drama is focused on action etymologically and simplifies and symbolizes 
human situation and intention of life and in relationship. An etymological definition of 
drama is shown in An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, Liddell and Scott's Greek- 
English Lexicon, 7 th ed. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1975): "6paua, a deed, act, 
Aeschylus, Plato, an action represented on the stage, a drama, Aristophanes." (s. v. "ftpap: 
a ) 



138 



churches according to Jesus' holistic imperative and "contemporary spirit" of Korean 
Christians, as seen in the CHAPTER C. UNDERSTANDIGN JESUS' PARADIGM, 
PART I and the CHAPTER A. EXAMINING A KOREAN WORSHIP REALITY in this 



97 1 

PART II respectively. I will call such a task "drama." 



272 



In short, this chapter deals with new components, image of pastoral care . and 



97 1 

A concept of worship as a drama is made by Alvin J. Beachy in his Worship as 
Celebration of Covenant and Incarnation'- 'As we recall the interaction between culture 
and worship, in which worship is first informed by culture, but culture later transformed 
by worship." (17) 

?7? 

This means dealing with worship as pastoral care socio-culturally or 
holistically. The reason is that pastoral care basically is "relationship." Such 
relationship is emphasized in the communal, socio-cultural, or holistic context of Christian 
relationship. A good clue for understanding the difference between pastoral care and 
counseling is made by Margaret Zipse Kornfeld in her Cultivating Wholeness-' A Guide to 
Care and Counseling in Faith Communities (New York: Continuum, 2001): 

Traditionally, counseling and care in religious communities is referred to as 
"pastoral care and counseling." This name pointed to the person-the pastor- 
who was doing the counseling. In this text we call this work community care 
and counseling. In this name change we are pointing to both the context of care 
(the community) and to the persons cared for (the members of the community). 
(13) 

Traditionally, Christian worship has been considered to practice two sides of the 
human being's or worshiper's relationship: other humans and God, according to "On these 
two commandments depend all the law and the prophets" (Matthew 23:40). It is very 
worship in spirit and truth (John 4:24). Worship can never be spiritual and true to God 
when it is practiced in the midst of broken human relationships as Jesus gave warning to 
his Disciples from a eschatological point of view: "Truly, I say to you, as you did it not to 
one of the least of these, you did it not to me" (Matthew 25:45). In the case of Jesus' 
ministry, the powerful goal of pastoral care is to recover such a broken relationship at 
table, on the pulpit, and in broken environments. 



139 



system or order of Jesus worship model, 2, re-examining Jesus' system or paradigm of 
ministry, 274 studying Jesus' view of worship, 2, and presenting an example of Jesus' 
holistic worship. 



2. Components 

Jesus' system of worship is well implied in his imperative. Jesus ordered his 
disciples, "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing . . . , teaching them to 
observe all that I have commanded you." (Matthew 28:19-20) The worship Jesus 
ordered was "holistic." It implies that Jesus' ministry or program can be fully 

explained or understood only when such "a whole ministry" is reproduced or repeated. 



0*70 

Means Jesus' example in ministry and for worship. It also means Jesus' 
holistic worship and/or ministerial model. Refer to Alvin J. Beachy's understanding of 
worship model: "The uniqueness of biblical worship is its orientation toward God's aci in 
history." (13) 

Luke 10^8-9 "Whenever you enter a town and they receive you, eat . . . 
heal . . . and say to them." 

John 4:23-24 "The hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will 
worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship him. God is 
spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." 

The concept "all" is to imply a system, i.e. what should be understood as a 
whole. It implies all problems belong to the system not parts. See, for a concept of 
"system," Peter L. Steinke, Healthy Congregations'- A Systems Approach (New York: An 
Alban Institute Publication, 1996), 4-13. 



140 



What does Jesus' holistic worship mean? Jesus prayed for a new community: 
"They [the disciples] are not of the world, even as I am not of the world." (John 17:16) 
This prayer was clearly for a new socio-cultural community. Jesus' holistic worship, in 
the point, means the emergence of a new system of community. What was Jesus' 
purpose for such a new system? It is made clear in his commandment: "This is my 
commandment, that you love one another as I loved you." (John 15:12) That is, the 
purpose of holistic worship was a system of love. 

Jesus' system of ministry, paradigm of ministry, or open table fellowship, 
narrative-dialogical preaching, and spiritual proclamatory healing ministry can be 
considered as Jesus' system of worship or worship components as it is according to the 
imperative of Matthew 28:20. In a word, the new components of Jesus worship model 
for re-orienting Confucianized worship should include the stages of fellowship, preaching, 
and healing. 



3. Image and Pastoral Care 



277 



See Raimundo Panikkar's Worship and Secular Man (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1973): "Worship cannot be disconnected from ordinary human life. . . . Worship has to 
permeate ordinary human life and, on the other, real human life has to make worship alive 
and significant." (61) 



141 



Jesus' image or view of worship and pastoral care is well shown and implied in 

the following verses from John's Gospel: 

Jesus said to her [a woman of Samaria], "Woman, believe me, the hour is coming 
when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. You 
worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from 
the Jews. But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will 
worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship him. 
God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. . . . 

... So when the Samaritans came to him, they asked him to stay with 
them; and he stayed there two days. And many more believed because of his 
word. They said to the woman, "It is no longer because of your words the we 
believe, for we know that this is indeed the Savior of the world." (4:21-24, 40-42) 

The worship that Jesus ordered was epistemological, true, and spiritual. To worship what 
we know, or our hermeneutical or epistemological worship under the present conditions 
implies that we are realizing a socio-cultural crisis or problem of worship and finding a 
new image of worship according to Jesus' paradigm. Such an image should be 
transformative. "Transformation," Donald M. Chinula well defines, "refers to changing 
the condition, nature, or character of persons and society so that the old is replaced by the 
new." Jesus' open table relationship dramatically shows such an image in the 

following passage from Matthew's Gospel: "When the Pharisees saw this, they said to his 



9*7 o 

Donald M. Chinula, Building King's Beloved Community-' Foundations for 
Pastoral Care and Counseling with the Oppressed (Cleveland- United Church Press, 1997), 
57. 



142 



disciples, "Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners?" . . . "Go and learn 
what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice.' For I came not to call the righteous, 
but sinners."" (9:11, 13) Jesus' transformative pastoral care or ministry at table means 
creating a new socio-cultural system. Alyward Shorter hits the mark of what a system 

transformative pastoral care should aim at: 

He [Jesus] consorted daily with tax-collectors and public sinners. In a word, 
Jesus taught love, in opposition to the legalism and formalism of the 
establishment 'ghetto.' . . . 

. . . Jesus held an inclusive, not an exclusive, view of God's people. 

It is an inclusive or open community through transformative table relationship, worship, or 
pastoral care. 281 

What does true worship mean? Jesus said on true relationship, "If you continue 



See, in relation to a possible way to Jesus' new system, Michael E. Cavanagh's 
"The Concept of Sin in Pastoral Counseling" in Pastoral Psychology 41, no. 2 (1992)-' "Sin 
need not be a "negative element" but can be presented in ways that lead to acceptance, 
understanding and psychospiritual growth. . . . Sin is an opportunity for growth." (81, 86) 

I read an inclusive concept of sin in the above article for a new socio-cultural 
system, i.e. an inclusive table of Jesus. In a sense, it seems to be acceptable to 
understand Jesus' open table relationship that William H. Willimon says in his Worship as 
Pastoral Care (Nashville: Abingdon, 1980): "Maybe the only requirement for eating here 
with Jesus at his table is that you are hungry and know that you are hungry, and you 
believe that you can be fed here." (51) 

Alyward Shorter, Toward a Theology of Inculturation (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1997), 120-121. 

no i 

See Donald M. Chinula: "This [transformation] requires a revolution in habits 
of thought and behavior. . . . Transformation of persons must be accompanied by the 
transformation of society and its institutions." (57-58) 



143 



in my word, you are truly my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will 
make you free. ... I speak of what I have seen with my Father." (John 8:31-32, 38) It 
was for human liberation or freedom. So true worship is constructive. Such a worship 
image of relationship should be liberatory. Jesus also wanted to save human beings from 

the socially distorted system of relationship: 

"You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and 
hate your enemy. ' But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who 
persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for he 
makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on 
the unjust. . . . You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is 
perfect." (Matthew 5:43-45, 48) 

It, Jesus' liberatory pastoral care or ministry, means living with God and recovering a very 
human image of relationship from a socio-culturally distorted image of human relationship, 
practicing a God-centered narrative or dialogical relationship. Jesus' narrative- 

dialogical relationship shows such an image dramatically. Jesus said to the Jews, "1 have 
much to say about you and much to judge; but he who sent me is true, and I declare to the 



282 

A logic of such a liberatory pastoral care image is made by Donald M. Chinula: 

Yet the human personality, while moored in God's own, is culturally embedded 
and shaped. . . . That is, as imago dei, the human capacity for self- 
transformation and actualization cannot be limited by any humanly imposed 
standard. . . . Only the transcendence of God can provide the norm for the self in 
its quest for healing and meaningful living. . . . With God as the inexhaustible 
transcendental reality and motive force, the oppressed humanity can tap into that 
reservoir in its claim to the fullness of life. (55-58) 



144 



world what I have heard from him." (John 8:26) The purpose of such narrative- 
liberatory relationship, pastoral care, or worship is to make clear a religious identity. 
That is, it is to proclaim God's will and to make the narrative or the parable of God work 
in the world of human life. 

How can spiritual worship be practiced? John makes clear such a method in 
reporting Jesus' word of the Spirit. Jesus said to the disciples, "It is the spirit that gives 
life, the flesh is of no avail; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life." (John 
6:63) Jesus' image or view of spiritual worship implies promoting and encouraging life- 
giving spiritual relationships. Jesus was very dedicated to spiritual relationships. To 
live in spiritual relationship means living with the Holy Spirit and under the power and 
values of divine healing. Jesus said on this point, "The Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom 
the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your 
remembrance all that I have said to you." (John 14:26) To encourage such healing 
relationships, pastoral care, or worship is to practice a spiritual or faithful life according to 
the gospels. 283 



See Bryant L. Myers' Walking with the Poor- Principles and Practices of 
Transformational Development (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1999): 

First, as I pointed out earlier, the role of the biblical story must come into play. 

145 



4. Drama 

Jesus Ministry from a dramatic point of view: according to the Bible, the leading 
characters in Act 1 were God the Creator and religious persons, those in Act 2 were Jesus 
the Minister and his disciples, and those in Act 3 are Jesus' Holy Spirit the Counselor and 
spiritual evangelists or ministers. The spiritual evangelists or ministers seem to indicate 
true worshipers Jesus said in John: "The hour is coming, and now is, when the true 
worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship 
him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." (4:23- 
24) 

This point clues us in on how we should read Jesus' ministerial program to be 
dramatized in Act 3 from a worship point of view. It is that Jesus ministry, i.e. Act 2, 
implies being dramatized by three scenes from a thematic point of view: Scene 1 "open 



This is the normative story for all cultures and, as the living word of God, it is 
the source of possible worldview change. . . . Working for worldview change 
requires sensitivity, skill, and openness to change on both sides. In one sense 
the work of worldview change is a form of spiritual discernment. . . . Changing 
worldview presupposes relationships of trust in which all parties believe the 
others are sharing in this process of discovery and are open to letting the Spirit 
speak a word of truth to any and all. The first step is an appreciative effort to 
identify local values that are kingdom values so that we celebrate what is 
already in the culture that enhances or supports life. At this point, in a spirit of 
dialogue, it is acceptable to ask prophetic questions about practices and beliefs 
that seem anti-life. (239-240) 



146 



table fellowship ministry," Scene 2 "narrative preaching ministry/' and Scene 3 "spiritual 
proclamatory healing ministry." 284 These scenes are also named for stages since the 
drama has its own dramatic developmental processes. 

Jesus' fellowship program can be observed in open table worship, i.e., dramatized 
in Act 3, Scene 1 to observe his inclusive relationship. His preaching program can be 
observed in narrative worship, i.e., dramatized in Act 3, Scene 2 to observe his dialogical 
ministry. His healing program can be observed in healing worship, i.e., dramatized in 
Act 3, Scene 3 to observe his spiritual ministry. 

What I note in presenting a Jesus worship drama for Korean-Christians or 
churches is how Confucianized-Korean worship can be effectively re-oriented. The 
following drama set in worship is designed for a small-Korean-American Disciples 
church in New York. 



OQA 

Jesus ministry from a thematic point of view: we can find three themes of 
Jesus ministry: fellowship, preaching, and healing. Jesus' fellowship ministry was 
characterized by openness, inclusiveness, and democratic emotion to all people through 
open table. His preaching ministry was characterized by God-centrality or religious 
identity through narrative-dialogical or dialectical relationship. His healing ministry was 
characterized by working spirituality from open faith, which is ruling over physical world. 

http://www.Disciples.org . 
http://hometown.aol.com/koreandisciples/myhomepage/profile.htmI . 
The church name is "A Church in Christ." 



147 



Drama title: SUNDAY 3 STAGE WORSHIP: DRAMATIC WORSHIP 286 

19,1 

Time: Sunday 12 Noon to 2 pm. 
Place: The church minister's home. 

Participants: There are eight in all. Three male adults are doctoral students 
between the age of thirty and early forties, including the minister. One other male adult 
is a bank worker from an American college and in his thirties. Two female adults are 
saleswomen from Korean colleges between thirty and early forties. Two children are an 
eleven-year-old boy and a four-year-old girl. 



Drama system or order: 
STAGE I. FELLOWSHIP: OPEN TABLE WORSHIP, 12 00-01 00 pm, at one table 



The three stages are fellowship, preaching, and healing. The three-stage 
worship is formed of open table, narrative, and healing. 

Starting time of worship can be flexible whenever someone wants to be 
baptized in the triune name. Then, the baptismal ceremony will be the Pre-Stage: The 
Triune Baptism. In a case for example, meeting time for the pre~stage will be moved up 
at least by thirty minutes. 

My concept of baptism and the formula: I insist that "the triune baptism" should be 
the real baptism Jesus himself ordered. The triune baptism should be held by one of the 
baptized whenever someone whoever he or she is in age and race wants to be baptized in 
the triune name even though where baptismal water cannot be found there. The triune 
name here should be understood as the only condition of the ceremony. It should be also 
the perfect content as well as the full meaning of the triune baptism. I am sure that the 
triune baptism Jesus ordered should be held without restriction of time, place, age, and 
race. In a sense, the triune baptism seemed to be a kind of "open baptism." I believe 
that the formula should be: "Baptize you, (name), in the name of the Father and of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit." (Matthew 28:19) 



148 



All are seated at table : 



The Blessing 288 

Give the following benediction one another in English and Korean in unison. 
All: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, Be with you all, Be with you all, the grace of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, Be with you all, Amen. 



The Song of Open Table Fellowship 

Sing together "Come, Jesus" by R. Andrea. 



The Reading of the Word of Jesus' Open Table Fellowship 

Read the following verses of Jesus' communal meal in both languages. 

Reader: The Pharisees and their scribes murmured against his disciples, saying, "Why do 
you eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners?" And Jesus answered them, 
"Those who are well have no need of a physician, but those who are sick; I have 



Ooo 

Why we start worship with the blessing is that Jesus started his fellowship 
ministry with his blessing. See Matthew 14:19, 15:36, Mark 6:41, 8:6, Luke 9:16, and 
John 6:11. 

In Korean: 

*r °flT^ € £^7} \^9\ %t\] v\9\ #*fl ^ofl^s) €- £*j)7)- ^ t\E\ o^j. 

149 



not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." (Luke 5:30-32) 



The Time of Open Meal 

Table manner here is not "elder first" :yi but "the less and weak first.' Free talking is 
encouraged according to personal matters of concern. The cardinal purpose of this table 
relationship is to realize and practice human costly love for one another. 



The Time of Cleaning 

While women wash dishes men fold up tables and arrange chairs. Men also wash dishes 



290 In Korean: "wf^HW x]$ tf7]&^*] zl ^\%% t>l ti o v *H 7 r^3 M 3 7 r °\ 
*|*H i^ 3^4 %v\] m. "H^ afl^H tfl^H 7 f2f A f^ &%-& 4i^l^ ^€ 

^7l|A]7le| &ii5r." (^f7l-4-g- 5:30-32) 

291 Mttj^Ff 1Hr4 A 1 <Chang-You-You-Seo> 

A definition of <Chang-You-You-Seo> is shown in 7vew Concise Korean 
Dictionary, Korean ed. (Seoul: Dong-A Publishing Company, 1976): "An ethical concept, 
one of the five cardinal articles of Confucian morality, there is order between young and 
old." (s.v."3MMH w ) 

292 Matthew 25:35-36, 40: 

For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink. I 
was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you clothed me, I was 
sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me. . . . Truly, 1 say to 
you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me." 

Means the communal meal. 



150 



while women fold up tables and so on. This system works in turn weekly or monthly All 
move to an open hall. 



The Time of Announcement 

The leader announces church news. 



The Time of Open Communion 

Share bread and the cup with all present. The basic manner is to stand up. One of the 
purposes of the Eucharist is to realize God's costly love. 294 The following verses are 

read in both languages: 

Leader: For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on 
the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he given thanks, he broke it, 
and said, "This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." 



In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant 
in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me." For as 
often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lords death until 
he comes." (I Corinthians 1 1 :23-26) 295 

Means the Incarnation. See, for the full meaning of Communion, Luke 22: 19- 
20 "He [Jesus] took bread, and when he had given thanks he broke it and gave it to them 
[the apostles], saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance 
of me." Likewise the cup after supper, saying, "This cup which is poured out for you is 
the new covenant in my blood."" 



In Korean: 



151 



The leader presides over the Eucharist alone or with one member 



296 



STAGE H. PREACHING: NARRATIVE WORSHIP, 01 00-01 40 pm, at an open hall 
All are seated except the leader. 



The Reading of the Word of Jesus' God-Centrality 

Read the following verse of Jesus' gospel in both languages. 

Reader: I have much to say about you and much to judge; but he who sent me is true, and 



I declare to the world what I have heard from him. (John 8:26) 



297 



The Spoken Response: Confession 

Recite or read together The Apostles' Creed in English or Korean. 
All: I Believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth: 



ifl7 r MbHtII £* 3£ ^1 ^ 3M4 5 ^ ^1t*1H #*H£ ti aHl *|£ 7} 
*14 ^r44*U *flo] 444^ o]%g- u]S]# ^4fe ifl s-o|i^ o]^ ^<j}aj q. 

1- 71^2} 5|-A]J7 Al^ojl ^ 44 £oj #-§- 7H A 1^ 4444 o] #.£- tfl 51) 

5- *i]£ 4 £4°H °l 7 >l-§: 3>44 4^ ^ 44 4-1- 71^44 4£^4 444 

o) *J-^ * O.IXJ oj #-§- n>^ nflnj-4 5-o] ^Jl^-g; ^^ nfl^l £4^ 344 4. 
(JZ.4^44 11:23-26) 

one 

See Mark Earey's dramatic suggestion in the Eucharist, 15. 

297 In Korean: "ifl7 r M^f u^H t4^ #4^f %*} &-^4 4# -^4^1 4 4 t 
SH4 Ll]7f nd\}7)\ f-o. ^^ ^1^-6)17)1 ^4-^4." (-9-^:^-§- 8:26) 



152 



And in Jesus Christ His only Son our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, 
born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; 
He descended into hell; the third day He rose again from the dead; He ascended into 
heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence He shall 
come to judge the quick and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Holy 
Universal Church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of 
the body; and the life everlasting. Amen. 



The Reading of the Word of Praising God 

Leader: Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, as you teach and admonish one 
another in all wisdom, and as you sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs with 
thankfulness in your hearts to God. (Colossians 3:16) 299 



The Sung Response: Confession 

Praise together three to five gospel-songs or hymns. 



298 



In Korean: ^7j. 



TZJS-- 



£v*M- 3**1# ?b=4] sW-^ 4*H-I- HI?} n 44^. =l ^°}t -fe) ^ 41^ 

H4£><*M1 JL^-%; ^o.A]., $*}7}d\) S-^ ^O.AJJ), ^ A }^- X] A}&- nVo)] £>*. 

4 4£3H 4*1 #44*H, *HM iSA}, *i^R! *m^ +^<% &o> 7*1*14 

7\, T^^AJ A> 4<2f ^ 7\% $#^Z] £A]5j2)-. 

^-§- &A}SL*\, 7]^ -g-514, -8 £7} ^ 2^*}-fe ^4, 3# *r*M T^l^ 

744, #°1 4*1 4fe 34. <8£*1 4^ ^* ^4*4°14. of*!. 

299 In Korean: "H^^i^l ^o] u) 5] ^6fl ^3] 7 ^H £.=. x}^^ z)x} 7]-e 

*H tH^st^ *14 ?H4 tl^t ^^1- ^^ 4-§-°fl #41r°~£- 5f4^# t^^/' ( = 
5.4H 3:16) 



153 



The Time of God's Narrative 

The leader or preacher presents an interpretation of the text from a narrative therapeutic 
point of view as far as possible. 300 The primary purpose of this narrative sermon is to 
promote members' God-centrality or religious identities. 



STAGE m. HEALING: HEALING WORSHIP, 01 :40-02:00 pm, at an open hall. 
All are seated except the leader. 



The Reading of the Word of Jesus' Healing 

Read the following verses of Jesus' healing ministry in both languages. 

Reader: Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, saying, "I will; be clean " And 



302 



immediately his leprosy was cleansed. (Matthew 8:3) 



See, for a useful introduction of narrative therapy, Jill Freedman and Gene 
Combs' Narrative Therapy: The Social Construction of Preferred Realities (New York: W. 
W. Norton & Company, 1996), 14-19. See also, for my narrative therapeutic point of 
view, the NARRATIVE THERAPY: A SOCRATIC INTERPRETATION FOR YOUTH 
MINISTRY in APPENDICES. 

See, for the Jesus' intention of ordering preaching narrative, Mark 14:8-9 
"She has done what she could; she has anointed my body beforehand for burying. And 
truly, I say to you, wherever the gospel is preached in the whole world, what she has 
done will be told in memory of her." I read the clause "what she has done" as narrative. 

See the NARRATIVE SERMON: BEYOND CULTURE-LADEN NEIGHBORHOOD in 
APPENDICES. 

302 In Korean: ""ll^H £-§- i^o] xj ofl ^] c}]a)u) 7le}Afu|) tf| 7r £*}^ *1)3^ 
-§- i£o_2j- ^Xltfl z?X\ 2fi] &%■*%<>] *fl^Hx3w^4."H314£ 8:3) 

154 



Jesus called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, 

'in'* 

to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every infirmity. (Matthew 10:1) 



The Reading of the Word of Healing Proclamation 



Read the following verse in both languages. 



Reader: You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall 
be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria and to the end of the earth. 
(Actsl:8) 304 



The Songs of Faith 

Sing together with about three gospel-songs. 



The Time of Prayer 

Everyone prays freely for individuals and the church for a few minutes. 
The leader offers a closing prayer. 



303 In Korean: "i^H =L 1 ¥ *H*rf- ^ = 4 ^£ t^^t H°rMH £€■ ^4 
M °-R> ?A% jl*|fe €%-§: ^£^M4." K3l4-§- 10:1) 

304 In Korean: "3.$ $*$<>] MsHMI «g*M£ uiS)7 r ^£ i£ji ^^4 £ 



155 



The Song of Pleasure 

All: Blessed be the name, blessed be the name, blessed be the name of the Lord. Blessed 
be the name, blessed be the name, blessed be the name of the Lord Hallelujah! 
Hallelujah! Blessed be the name of the Lord. Hallelujah! Hallelujah! Blessed 
be the name of the Lord. (Huncha Choi) 



The Poetic Proclamation 306 



Read poetry by turns according to the Christian calendar or the theme of narrative sermon. 

Leader: Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked or stand in the 

way of sinners 
All: or sit in the seat of mockers. 
Leader: But his delight is in the law of the Lord, 
All: and on his law he meditates day and night. 

Leader: He is like a tree planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in season 
All: and whose leaf does not wither. Whatever he does prospers. 
Leader: Not so the wicked! 
All: They are like chaff that the wind blows away. 
Leader: Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, 
All: nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous. 
Leader: For the Lord watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked 

will perish. (Psalm l) 307 

305 In Korean: cf^u g<g ( ^ ^ ^ ): «ofl^ %.<$ dfl^u ■$.<$ ofl^u £0^ 
4 ofl^ £<$ ^1^ £<£ 41^3 2r°M*14 M#-°> ^:W>> «fl^ ^o^m tt-^ 

Implies that God's word heals worshipers. 
307 In Korean: 1. ^/# 1& 
a!5L* r : 3- safe 4t£ <*91£\ *)# fs*\ °W*H A°A*\ *H *M *W^M 

156 



The Physical Proclamation 

Offer their tithes and contributions and sing together "All Things Come of Thee, O Lord." 
All: All things come of Thee, O Lord, and of Thine own have we given Thee. Amen. 



The Linguistic Proclamation 

Recite or read together The Lord's Prayer in English or Korean. 

All: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come Thy 
will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread And 
forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us 
not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For Thine is the kingdom, and the 
power, and the glory, forever. Amen. 309 



3 f>: n °A A \^A D r^-*1 °Wt £2.^1 =l $a}7\ 4 ^^j-^u} 

^]£4: ^^ n^^l &-§-°H 

5] ^: 2*] *}#*{] 14^ 44 £21} 

?l3E^r: 1132.3. ^o]ol ai^ ^cj^j s.^ 

3 *: 3*1 6 1 ^<^ ^^°fl 1*1 **re|Str 

308 In Korean: _E^ #0/ ^J^JjLeJ: "5-^ 3M ^1^^ &2H 0} o)j^-§- -^ 



309 



In Korean: ^7/_ 



5T^i 31^1 -T-^l 0>H1X|«^, Olf-Ol 7-]^-^ aj;g-g- 1*2*12^. ufB^O) Ol^^ A |^ 

2^ -fel^Tfl H-g-t °<H-§: ^^-A)i, o.e|7l- ^^HM) 5) *|£ *}# 4*M £ 
cfl^fl 1+^-4 ^14 cg^-ol oj-t^Hl <^<j) oiA|-g-ufo|r4. oj-ifl. 



157 



The Closing Song 

Sing together "Heaven is Full of Your Glory." 



The drama is to observe Jesus ' holistic imperative of ministry. This is to observe all 
image of that Jesus performed and commanded at table, in dialogue, and in healing as 
the culmination of a Jesus' ministry, i.e., disciples' dual relationship and or life. Jesus 
said, "If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one 
another sfeet. For I have given you an example, that you also should do as I have done 

Til 

to you. " (John 13:14-15) The first stage of worship is to enlarge the range of 
neighborhood as well as to acknowledge importance of costly love through "open meal 

110 111 

and Communion. '" The second stage is to concretize friendship to God, religious 



This can be read as a kind of visualizing Jesus' holistic ministry from a 
dramatic worship point of view. Visualizing a ministry implies objectifying the ministry 
and means popularizing such a lifestyle of ministry. 

Q 1 1 

This can be read as a kind of visualizing Jesus' fellowship ministry from a 
dramatic worship point of view. 

See, for the historical origin and meaning of "open meal and Communion, " 
Marcus J. Borg, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time: The Historical Jesus & the Heart 
of Contemporary Faith (New York: Harper San Francisco, 1994): 

The open table fellowship of Jesus was thus perceived as a challenge to the 
purity system. And it was: the meals of Jesus embodied his alternative vision of 
an inclusive community. The ethos of compassion led to an inclusive table 
fellowship, just as the ethos of purity led to a closed table fellowship. 

158 



identity, as well as to experience narrative power through the Word and Praise. ~ The 
third stage 315 is to express spirituality as well as Christian faith through holistic 
proclamations. 



5. Conclusion 

Jesus worship model for Korean Christians or churches is composed of three 
stages according to Jesus' paradigm of ministry and imperative: the stages of fellowship, 
preaching, and healing. I called these stages or worship components, the Korean- 
Christian system of worship. Such components are intended to liberate Confucianized 
Korean worship and to change and re-create its semantic bases or environments. To the 
end, Korean worship should first include open table relationship and hold both church 
meals and the Eucharist regularly. And, such open table worship should be organized 

Ultimately, the meals of Jesus are the ancestor of the Christian eucharist. (56) 

010 

This can be read as a kind of visualizing Jesus' preaching ministry from a 
dramatic worship point of view. 

See, for an example of the narrative power, Marcus J. Borg: "By being good 
stories, they [the longer parables] draw the hearer into the world of the narrative. They 
then invite the hearer to see something else in the light of what happens in the narratival 
world." (74) 

This can be read as a kind of Jesus' healing ministry from a dramatic worship 
point of view. 

159 



under "the less first" and/or "the weak first" not under the elder first. 316 Let us now first 
prepare food and chairs, especially for children as well as the physically old, for church 
meals, and then hold open Communion. That order of open table is surely transformative 
in its worship image and pastoral care. 

The second narrative-preaching stage is intended to correct the human ideological 
preaching that has oppressed congregation. Such narrative worship, if it works properly, 
should be under God's liberatory image and can be promoted by preachers from their 
therapeutic points of views. Narrative sermon in this preaching stage seems to work 
accordingly. 

The third healing stage is intended to heal materialism in healing process. Such 
healing worship, if it works properly, should be engaged or performed under Christian 
faithful prayer to God and with companion Christians, and will be promoted by spiritually 
multidimensional prayer. Personal, pastoral or ecclesiastical, and doxological prayer in 
the healing stage seems to produce such spiritually multidimensional prayer or an 



QIC 

The concepts of "the less first" and "the weak first" are coined to re-orient 
Confucian table manners, "elder first." In fact, the object of the less first will be children 
and that of the weak first the aged. See, a concept of "elder first," New Concise Korean 
Dictionary. "Chang-You-You-Seo: An ethical concept, one of the five cardinal articles of 
Confucian morality, there is order between young and old." (s. v. "^-ft-fr*]") 



160 



encouraging image. 

If working properly, Jesus' worship model will promote a change from exclusive 
to inclusive, from preacher-centered to dialogical, and from materialistic relationship 
and/or community to spiritual relationship and/or community through its three stages: 
fellowship, preaching, and healing stages. Such a change will be a reflection of the 
model's holistic image: transformative, liberatory, and encouraging image of Jesus and of 
pastoral care. 



See Peter L. Steinke's Healthy Congregations: A Systems Approach (New 
York: An Alban Institute Publication, 1996): "The whole of their interaction is more than 
the sum of the parts. The whole will be a multiple of all emotional interactions. " (8) 



161 



CONCLUSION 



1. A Jesus' Paradigm of Ministry 

What we call a paradigm is an explanatory framework. The framework is 
composed of a phenomenon and its explanatory concepts. That framework has two 
senses: scientific explanation and re-production or re-creation. The two meanings have 
paradigmatic dual significance in the world of human life. In other words, we cannot 
understand only what Jesus' ministry was in the world of life but we must also imitate 
or follow all that he commanded us disciples in the gospels, studying his paradigm of 
ministry. 320 



See, for my reason of emphasizing the world of life, N. T. Wright's The New 
Testament and the People of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God. vol. 1. 
(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992): "The main thing that would have struck observers of 
early Christianity was not its 'religious' side, nor indeed its early doctrinal formulations, 
but its total way of life." (120) 

My logic of imitating Jesus in ministry and worship is as follows. Worship is 
connected to ministry in Jesus' imperative. Worship loses the name Christian without 
ministry. The ministry weakens imagination of very humanity without worship. Worship 
is to be respectable to God with ministry and the ministry is to culminate in worship. 
Christian worship should be a reflection of Christian ministry according to the Jesus' final 
parable in the Gospel of Matthew 25 ('Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least 
of these my brethren, you did it to me.') as well as his imperative. 

Philosophical study here I adopted notes creativity of reason. As is generally 

162 



The purpose of PART I in this thesis project was to make clear Jesus' threefold 
ministry in the dual light of his paradigmatic schema. In a word, Jesus' paradigm of 
ministry was to be understood and explained in a threefold ministry: his open feeding 
fellowship, narrative-dialogical preaching, and spiritual-proclamatory healing ministry 
whose purpose was to re-create human relationship, life, and image in the world of 
cultural society. The paradigm therefore in fact suggests that whoever wants to re-create 
his or her human relationship, life, and image should follow Jesus' socio-cultural, holistic, 
or threefold ministry of life, i.e., his fellowship, preaching, and healing ministry. 



2. A Jesus Worship Model 

Worship is a barometer of human communal life and faith. What the barometer 



known, the beginning of Western philosophy was to draw a line between mythological 
thought and explanatory-creative thought of reason. A simple introduction of that is 
made by John Burnet in his Greek Philosophy (Hong Kong: The MacMillan Press Ltd., 
1981): 

In the first place, philosophy is not mythology. . . . From the Platonic point of 
view, there can be no philosophy where there is no rational science. . . . Now 
rational science is the creation of the Greeks, and we know when it began. We 
do not count as philosophy anything anterior to that. (3) 



163 



implies is that the worshipers' life and faith are exposed 321 in the form of worship or its 
process. The worship forms can be divided two different types according to their 
emphases: status quo or conservative and creative or imaginative. The status quo 
worship reflects the existing order of the life world as it is. The creative worship 
functions as a re-creator in the world of the existing life order. The two types of worship 
cannot live together, just as new wine and old wineskins cannot exist together. In other 
words, we cannot accept both Jesus' new-faith life and our old human traditional lifestyle 
together. 

The purpose of PART II in this thesis project was to elucidate a Jesus worship 
model according to his new ministry. Jesus' new ministry was developed in the world of 
his socio-cultural life and created a new human relationship, life, and spiritual image It 
was a holistic, socio-cultural, or fellowship-preaching-healing ministry. In the same way, 
my Jesus worship model should reflect Jesus' holistic ministry. The model therefore was 
composed of three stages: fellowship, preaching, and healing stages. It was my three- 
stage worship model. 



op 1 

This can be understood as visualizing or dramatizing faith as seen in this 



thesis project. 



164 



3. Re-Creating Human Relationship, Life, and Image 

My work in this thesis project was to respond to the difference between our 
distorted-oppressed human relationship, life, and image in the world of Coniucianized 
Korean cultural society and Jesus' own re-creational-liberatory human relationship, life, 

IT? 

and image of ministry in the gospels. My task was twofold. First, I asked, what is 
our problem as Koreans today in the world of socio-cultural life? And how can we solve 
the problem effectively and faithfully? In other words, I wanted to explain why we 
Korean Christians dismiss the current form of ministry and worship in question and to 
present how we can re-create our Korean relationship, life, and image according to those 
of Jesus. 323 

To put it simply, Korean status quo ministry and worship today make Korean 



099 

Edward Hallett Carr's following statement according to Croce speaks for my 
motivation for this thesis project, in his What Is History? The George Macaulay Trevelyan 
Lectures Delivered at the University of Cambridge January-March 1961 (New York: 
Vintage Books A Division of Random House, 1961): "All history is "contemporary history," 
declared Croce, meaning that history consists essentially in seeing the past through the 
eyes of the present and in the light of its problems." (22) Likewise, I believe that Jesus 
in history is alive in contemporary history. 

Edward Hallett Carr's understanding of reason is notable: "The primary 
function of reason as applied to man in society, is no longer merely to investigate, but to 
transform." (190) I note dual role of reason to human life: critical and transformative or 
re-creative. 



165 



Christians wild or natural 324 in their socio-cultural relationship, life, and image They 
are very used to living in a discriminatory table relationship, in a hierarchical career 
structure, and with a materialistic human image in the world of their cultural society As 
stated in this project, 325 many of them want to escape from their cruel world of life. 
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s following insightful indictment is very valuable for our Korean 

Christians to hear: 

The contemporary church is often a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain 
sound. It is so often the arch-supporter of the status quo. Far from being 
disturbed by the presence of the church, the power structure of the average 
community is consoled by the church's silent and often vocal sanction of things 
as they are. 326 

That is to say, we Korean Christians should positively, actively, and faithfully make an 
alternative socio-cultural model of life rather than avoiding the cruel reality of "things as 
they are." 



094 

It implies the state or emotion that is not edified according to the divine law of 
love. It means living under the law of the jungle. And it indicates the discriminatory, 
exclusive, and competitive emotion that Confucianized Korean ministry and worship 
produce. See also the CHAPTER A. EXAMING A KOREAN WORSHIP REALITY, PART II. 
A WORSHIP MODEL FOR KOREANS. 

325 See the CHAPTER A. EXAMING A KOREAN WORSHIP REALITY. 

Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham city Jail, copyright 1986 by 
Coretta Scott King, quoted in Sheryl A. Kujawa, "Disorganized Religion," Disorganized 
Religion: The Evangelization of Youth and Young Adults, ed. Sheryl A. Kujawa 
(Cambridge: Cowley Publications, 1998), 223. 



166 



My response to the Korean problem was a Jesus worship model. The new 
worship model of Jesus should make Korean Christians soft or open in the world of 
socio-cultural life, re-creating their relationship, life, and image in worship that is 
characterized by open table fellowship, narrative preaching, and spiritual healing 

328 

processes. 



4. Toward a "Soft" Jesus 



What makes human beings either wild or soft in fact is law. ' Natural law 



It implies the emotion that is working according to the divine law of perfect 
love. It means acknowledging human beings non-competitors and they should deal with 
one another indiscriminately. And it indicates the inclusive, dialogical, spiritual emotion 
that Jesus' worship model produces. 

I want this model to be accepted as an attempt to popularize Jesus' lifestyle of 
ministry. I hope that more many disciples experience Jesus' fellowship, preaching, and 
healing every Sunday through this SUNDAY 3 STAGE WORSHIP: DRAMATIC WORSHIP, 
touch historical memorial traces whenever eating, speaking, and being painful, and 
reproduce Jesus' lifestyle, i.e. the very human relationship, life, and image, in the world of 
daily life. 

Edward Hallett Carr gives us a valuable view of law: "The so-called laws of 
science which affect our ordinary life are in fact statements of tendency, statements of 
what will happen, other things being equal, or in laboratory conditions." (87) What I note 
is caeteris paribus ,i.e., "other things being equal." The concept is used to emphasize 
"scientific reproduction or re-creation." See, for examples, Bernard Lonergan, Method in 
Theology (New York: Herder & Herder, 1972): 

It was confined to formulating the set of procedures that, caeteris paribus, yield 
historical knowledge, to explaining how that knowledge arises, in what it 

167 



makes human relationship, life, and image wild in the world of human cultural society. 
That is to say, the natural laws like exclusivism, hierarchy, materialism and so on make 
human relationship, life, and image wild as animals are wild under the law of the 



1 330 

jungle. 



Divine law should give us human beings soft or open relationship, life, and 



consists, what are its inherent limitations. . . . These writers are speaking in 
various manners of the same reality. They mean, I believe, that there exist 
procedures that, caeteris paribus, lead to historical knowledge. (195-196) 

'° See the following analogy of human image for my concept of "wild": 
In the world there are animal-like people. For example, lion-like-people would 
say that human beings have to learn the social image of ants. However, those people are 
never willing to imitate such an image for themselves, want rather to reign over others as 
the ruler of the jungle. In other words, those people learn the law of the jungle for 
themselves and imitate the image of the natural rulers. How is the life possible? The 
reason is that those people have a sense of their own superiority to others. And human 
experiential reason is to remain in its natural community not to create a new community. 
Naturalized moral obligation implies seeing human beings as the naturals not as 
being created in God's image, i.e., that it is natural that one should discriminate one's 
companions, human beings, according to their socio-cultural positions, classes, or races. 
In a sense, the image of animals makes human beings cruel animals and devaluates the 
human beings. What a stupid person he or she who wants to be under the control of 
others! Is this not "wild?" 

People who identify the image of human beings with the image of animals have to 
confront the following question-' why did God not create Adam and Eve in the image of 
animals? 

See also Matthew 23:1-3, 23 for Jesus' analogy of human image: 

Then said Jesus to the crowds and to his disciples, "The scribes and the 
Pharisees sit on Moses' seat: so practice and observe whatever they tell you, 
but not what they do; for they preach, but do not practice. . . . Woe to you, 
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mind and dill and cumin, and 
have neglected the weightier matters of the law, justice and mercy and faith: 
these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. 



168 



•JO 1 

image to live as disciples of Jesus in the world of our cultural society. "' That is to say, 
the divine laws of Jesus' inclusivism, dialogue, and spirituality, on the contrary, make 
human relationship, life, and image soft, as our Jesus of the triune God exemplified under 
the law of earthly love. 

As seen throughout this thesis project, Jesus did not work according to the 
natural law but according to the divine law of love. We met with "a soft Jesus" in this 
thesis project. We learnt how to do "soft ministry and worship." It means that we are 
with a soft Jesus in the world of our socio-cultural life as well as in the new ministry and 
worship. 

This thesis project is starting of the new ministry and worship as Matthew rightly 

• Til 

sees the implication of Emmanuel. What this thesis project means is to start to live 
toward a soft ministry and worship of Jesus. That is to say, I start to live toward a soft 



001 

The following statement of Edward Hallett Carr is meaningful to us disciples 
to live as Jesus did in history: "The content of history can be realized only as we 
experience it." (153) 

009 

Means a Jesus who had inclusive, dialogical, and spiritual emotion in the world 
of life. 

000 

Matthew 1:23 ""Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and his name 
shall be called Emmanuel" (which means, God with us)." 

Matthew 28:20 "And lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age." 



169 



Jesus in the world of my socio-cultural life as a disciple of Jesus Christ. 

It is beyond the scope of this project to keep and accomplish Jesus' Imperative 
for all disciples: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that 
I have commanded you." (Matthew 28:19-20) In other words, more deep philosophical 
work concerning Jesus' love is necessary to make many disciples hold a soft Jesus in 
common. Theological work on Jesus' ministry is also necessary to make many disciples 
start to pursue a soft ministry and worship of Jesus in the world of their socio-cultural life. 



170 



APPENDICES 



CHART A. OF THE KOREAN-CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY OR CHURCH SPLIT 
CHART B. OF THE KOREAN-CHRISTIAN CHURCH PROBLEMS 
CHART C. KOREAN-CHRISTIAN CHURCH REVIVAL 



NARRATIVE THERAPY: 

A SOCRATIC INTERPRETATION FOR YOUTH MINISTRY 

1 . Introduction 

2. Therapeutic Issues in Adolescence 

3 . Narrative Therapy 

a) Narrative Metaphor 

b) Narrative Technique 

4. Conclusion 



NARRATIVE SERMON: 

BEYOND CULTURE-LADEN NEIGHBORHOOD 



171 



CHART A. OF THE KOREAN-CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY OR CHURCH SPLIT 



60% 



50% 



40% 



30% 



20% 



10% 



0% 



£. ■ - ~ fZ 


! 


L 


L 






W .fl , 



Positive Somewhat 
Effect on Harmful 
Church 
Growth 



□ Positive 
Effect on 
Church 
Growth 

■ Irrelevant to 
Church 
Growth 

□ Somewhat 
Harmful to 
Church 
Growth 

□ Fatal Effect 
on Church 
Growth 



From "The Korea Christian Society of Ministers 1000 Inquiry," The Korean Christian 
Press, U.S.A. ed., 12 January 2002. 



172 



CHART B. OF THE KOREAN-CHRISTIAN CHURCH PROBLEMS 



70%-. 



60%. 



50%- 



40% 



30%- 



20% 



10%- 



0% 



^ 







Christian 

Inconsistency 

between Faith 

and Action 



Christian Disqualified 

Exclusiveness Christian 

Leadership 



□ Christian Inconsistency 
between Faith and Action 

□ Church's Unsuitable Reaction 
to Social Change 

□ Christian Exclusiveness 

□ Difference between Social and 
Christian Understanding 

D Disqualified Christian 
Leadership 

□ Social Tendency 



From "The Korea Christian Society of Ministers 1 000 Inquiry," The Korean Christian 
Press, U.S.A. ed., 12 January 2002. 



173 



CHART C. KOREAN-CHRISTIAN CHURCH REVIVAL 



40% 
35% 
30% 
25% 
20% 
15% 
10% 
5% 
0% 



34% 



i 



^2% 
_l_ 



xi 



16% 



i. 



7% 



5% 



O C CD 

o to -S5 s 

S -c ° {= 

2o co E 

CL O 

O 



-i — » 
CO 

-Q 
CO 



4% 



■ Practice of 
Christian Ethics 



Prayer and 

Repentance 

Movement 

□ Social 
Commitment 
to Justice 

□ Ecumenical 
Movement 



Bible Study 



□ Evangelism 



- From "The Korea Christian Society of Ministers 1000 Inquiry," The Korean Christian 
Press, U.S.A. ed., 12 January 2002. 



174 



NARRATIVE THERAPY 
A SOCRATIC INTERPRETATION FOR YOUTH MINISTTY 



1. Introduction 

In this paper I want to relate characteristics of adolescence and narrative therapy 
through Socratic midwifery. Socratic midwifery is fundamentally based on human 
dialogues and technically composed of two stages: "elenchus," or refutation, and intuition. 
I read narrative therapy as a kind of Socratic midwifery both in its meaning and in its 
technique. So I will identify a narrative metaphor with an implication of Socratic 
dialogues and on the other hand a process of externalizing conversations and creating a 
new story, with using the technical resources of Socratic midwifery. I assume that the 
side of the narrative metaphor and the technical side in Socratic midwifery are identified 
in the tasks of forming self-identity, and developing a new lifestyle in adolescence, 
respectively. 

My purpose in this paper is to demonstrate the suitability of narrative therapy to 
youth ministry. Toward that end, I will first identify what the primary therapeutic issues 
are in adolescence. I will then define what narrative metaphor implies, and what 
narrative technique means. As I use it here, the term adolescence refers to young people 

175 



between the ages of 1 3 to 1 8 



334 



2. Therapeutic Issues in Adolescence 

The therapeutic issues that I will explore here can be divided into two: narrative 
metaphor and technique. The two divisions here are also identified as a dialogical 
metaphor and a technical dialogue in relation to adolescence. First, what means the 

dialogical metaphor in adolescence? Harley Atkinson says, 

Adolescents should be equipped to discover truth for themselves. They should 
be encouraged to ask questions, given the freedom to doubt, and taught to do 
independent and critical thinking. Through small group discussions, role- 
playing, moral and faith dilemmas, discovery learning, playing the devil's 



Harley Atkinson, Ministry with Youth in Crisis (Birmingham: Religious 
Education Press, 1997), 7. For useful information to understand why this period is 
important and how the young people should be dealt with, see Sheryl A. Kujawa's 
"Disorganized Religion" in Disorganized Religion: The Evangelization of Youth and Young 
Adults edited by her (Cambridege: Cowley Publications, 1998): 

Many young people want to live a committed Christian life, yet we often havi j a 
hard time coping with them when they do. Once converted, young people will 
form their own opinions of the gospel message. . . . Gallup polls have confirmed 
that young people begin leaving the church between the ages of twelve and 
sixteen. Though young people tend to make faith commitments in their teenage 
and young adult years, the Alban Institute has determined that they do not 
automatically return to the church once they have left, "unless room is made for 
them and invitation extended in that period between the ages of eighteen and 
twenty-nine when the urge to commitment comes." Moreover, other statistics 
suggest that over fifty percent of those who affiliate with the Episcopal Church 
in adulthood do so through the ministry of higher education. (223, 225-26) 

Harley Atkinson, 26. 



1 76 



advocate, and by simply challenge them to search for answers, youth workers 
can help facilitate identity formation in identity-foreclosed teenagers. 

Dialogues, in a word, help to create adolescents' self, by providing meanings for 
adolescents. This process is understood as a search for self-identity. The fact that the 
self-identity is a product of dialogue makes us note an aspect of relation to others, i.e., 
what is called the relational identity. Most adolescents are forming their worlds of life 
through dialogue since the relational identity is an integral part of the world of human life. 
What this dialogical metaphor says in a sense is that "adolescent dialogues create their 
identities." 

Second, what means the technical dialogue in adolescence 9 Adolescence, 
according to Atkinson, is a transitional stage of life and a period of growing into an 
adult. "'" Thus adolescence is not only an age of crisis but also a time of chance and 
change. Atkinson, according to Marcia's view, well points out, "Two criteria are 
necessary for the achievement of a mature identity in youth: crisis and commitment." 
The adolescent crises, in fact, are found in their passive and negative attitudes in dealing 
with problems, as "Socrates and Aristotle described youth and young men as having 



336 Ibid., 5-6. 



337 Ibid., 22. 



177 



,338 



contempt for authority, disrespect for elders and teachers, having strong passions, and 
thinking they know everything."" 

Then how can we help to change such a lifestyle of adolescents? Since the mass 
media have a strong effect upon forming their lifestyle, technical countermeasures of their 
crises seem to need to visualize or objectify their problems likewise. The technical 
dialogue in a sense seems to well relate to adolescence, i.e., it attempts to clarify the 
problems facing youth. Visualization through technical dialogues is a means of 
objectifying of those problems. Since this technical dialogue at its best clearly shows the 
content of the adolescents' crises, we can call the dialogue Socratic elenchus or reputation. 
That is what Atkinson and Marcia call commitment. 

The commitment, i.e. Socratic elenchus or reputation, in adolescence implies an 
ethical attitude and the Socratic intuition implies an epistemological attitude, or content. 
As is generally known in the world of philosophy, for Socrates the two concepts are to be 
integrated in an epistemological-ethical dimension. Socrates says, "Knowledge is 
virtue." Thus commitment in a sense can be identified with Socratic intuition. The 
technical dialogue in such a way gives adolescents new lifestyles. 



338 Ibid., 10. 



178 



In short, the technical dialogue includes visualization or objectification of 
problems and its results, i.e., intuition concerning the problems. So what makes the new 
lifestyle is the technical dialogue. In other words, the technical dialogue can facilitate a 
change of adolescents' lifestyle. 



3. Narrative Therapy 

a) Narrative Metaphor 
Narrative has language as its medium. John Winslade and Alison Cotter say, 
"The attempt to understand conflict in narrative terms focuses on language as it shapes our 
sense of who we are and what our needs are." Language shapes meanings in human 
life in narrative therapy. Wally McKenzie and Gerald Monk also say, "Stories serve a 
meaning-making function." The narrative metaphor, according to John Winslade and 
Gerald Monk, implies at least two notions. One is that stories make sense of our lives 



OQQ 

J. Winslade and A. Cotter, "Moving from Problem solving to Narrative 
Approaches in Mediation," in Narrative Therapy in Practice-' The Archeology of Hope 
edited by G. Monk, J. Winslade, K. Crocket, and E. Epston (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 
Publishers, 1997), 254. 

W. McKenzie and G. Monk, "Learning and Teaching Narrative Ideas," in 
Narrative Therapy in Practice.' The Archeology of Hope edited by G. Monk, J. Winslade, K. 
Crocket, and D. Epston (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997), 85. 



179 



and relationships. The other is that stories construct the world of human life. 
"Narrative work," Wally McKenzie and Gerald Monk rightly emphasize, "is not seen as a 
process of discovering the truth about who people are but as an exploration of how people 
construct truths about themselves and their relationships." 

What does narrative metaphor imply? Narrative metaphor can be well 
understood in light of the Socratic motto, "Knowledge is virtue," since linguistic 
semantics here is identified with the social power or ethical side of language. Socrates in 

the Meno of Plato says, 

These opinions, being newly aroused, have a dreamlike quality. But if the same 
questions are put to him on many occasions and in different ways, you can see 
that in the end he will have a knowledge on the subject as accurate as 
anybody's. 343 

The opinions aroused imply human, personal, and/or communal relationships and 
dialogues. And the knowledge implies intuition and indicates human, personal, and/or 
communal narratives. All narratives therefore are both personal and communal. So Jill 



John Winslade and Gerald Monk, Narrative Mediation: A New Approach to 
Conflict Resolution (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2000), 3. 

342 W. McKenzie and G. Monk, 85. 

"Meno," translated by W. K. C. Guthrie, in Plato-' The Collected Dialogues 
edited by E. Hamilton and H. Cairns (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 85d. 

180 



Freedman and Gene Combs say, 344 

White (1991) writes that cultural stories determine the shapes of our 
individual life narratives. People make sense of their lives through stories, both 
the cultural narratives they are born into and the personal narratives they 
construct in relation to the cultural narratives. In any culture, certain narratives 
will come to be dominant over other narratives. . . . 

Whatever culture we belong to, its narratives have influenced us to 
ascribe certain meanings to particular life events and to treat others as relatively 
meaningless. Each remembered event constitutes a story, which together with 
our other stories constitutes a life narrative, and, experiential ly speaking, our life 
narrative is our life. 

In short, we live in narratives, narratives dominate our lives, and our lives can be 
identified with our narratives. 

People make meaning in story form, i.e., narrative metaphor. People could live 
out new self-images or identities, new possibilities for relationship, and new futures within 
the new stories. * Our world of life can be again created through our new stories So 
narrative therapy is about the retelling and reliving of stories in the light of the narrative 
metaphor 

b) Narrative Technique 

Narrative therapy includes two stages: externalizing conversations and making 

J. Freedman and G. Combs, Narrative Therapy-' The Social Construction of 
Preferred Realities (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1996), 32. 

345 Ibid., 16. 

181 



new stories or lifestyles technically. The stage of externalizing conversations refers to 
the objectification or separation of all relationships and people. The other stage of 
creating the new stories implies intuition and creation of new relationships. John 
Winslade and Gerald Monk rightly see: "Externalizing conversations focus attention on 
the relational domain. . . . They [Fiona and Greg] were developing a different story about 
their relationship." 346 

What is externalization of conversations in narrative therapy 9 The clue is found 
in the following statement: "Externalizing conversation serves to make problem-person 
relationships available for revision." 347 The externalization is the pre-stage of making 
the new stories. The pre-stage is concerned with visualization of problems since that 
process is integral to making relationships clear. It is also concerned with 

objectification of relationships since that process implies separation of problems and 



John Winslade and Gerald Monk, 6, 23. 

Jill Freeman, D. Epston, and D. Lobovits, Playful Approaches to Serious 
Problems-' Narrative Therapy with Children and Their Families (New York: W. W. Norton 
and Company, 1997), 67. 

J. H. Neal, J. H. Zimmerman, and V. C. Dickerson, "Couples, Culture, and 
Discourse: A Narrative Approach," in Short-Term Couple Therapy edited by J. M. 
Donovan (New York: The Guilford Press, 1999), 366. 



182 



people. 349 William C. Madsen clearly says, "I prefer to think about externalizing that 
which stands between people and the lives they would prefer to lead. In that regard, we 
can externalize problems, interactions, beliefs, lifestyles, life stories, and situations." 
That is to say, the externalization serves to show the problems in the relationship. 



-J C 1 

William C. Madsen well points out, 

Families that I work with have often found it helpful when we talk about 
problems in their lives as something separate from them and give it a name A 
lot of times when we've done this, it seems to help figure out how to deal with 
the problem in ways that haven't emerged before. 

The stage of externalizing conversations in a sense can be identified with Socratic 
elenchus or refutation. 

The stage of making the new stories or lifestyles also can be well identified with 

Socratic intuition. To reiterate the point of Socratic midwifery again: 

SOCRATES: So a man who does not know has in himself true opinions on a 

subject without having knowledge. 

MENO: It would appear so. 

SOCRATES: At present these opinions, being newly aroused, have a dreamlike 

quality. But if the same questions are put to him on many occasions and in 

different ways, you can see that in the end he will have a knowledge on the 

349 W. C. Madsen, 168. 

350 

William C. Madsen, Collaborative Therapy with Multi-Stressed Families' l : rom 
Old Problems to New Futures (New York: The Guilford Press, 1999), 174. 

351 Ibid., 176. 



183 



subject as accurate as anybody's. 

MENO: Probably. 

SOCRATES: This knowledge will not come from theaching but from 

questioning. He will recover it for himself. 

MENO: Yes. 

SOCRATES: And the spontaneous recovery of knowledge that is in him is 

recollection, isn't it? 

MENO: Yes. 352 

As reflected in this quote, knowledge means intuition and can be correlated with the stage 
of making new stories, while the opinions aroused can be correlated with the stage of 
externalizing conversations, and come from elenchus. 

Is narrative therapy really suitable for adolescents? The following narrative 
therapy is taken from a case between David Epston and Rhiannon, who was a 1 5-year-old 



girl with "anorexia." 



353 



Why does it want to murder you? . . . Anorexia, she said, fooled her by telling 
her she was fat when she was thin. ... "I am too thin." She sat up in her 
chair. . . . "Do you think Anorexia loves you 9 " he asked her. "No," she said. 
"It's killing me." Her voice grew stronger. Her body language changed. . . . 
David enlarged the new doorway, asking her how, in the past, she had shown 
herself to be the kind of person who could stand up to something like 
Anorexia. . . . Within 10 or 15 minutes, Rhiannon had become an ally in 
treatment, rather than a reluctant bystander. 354 



352 "Meno." 85d. 

B. O'Hanlon, "The Promise of Narrative: The Third Wave," Networker 



(November/ December 1994): 21. 



354 Ibid., 22. 



184 



What are the points of this narrative therapy 9 Externalization of conversation, for 
example, enables Rhiannon to separate herself from "anorexia" and objectifies the deadly 
lifestyle. In the stage of externalization, anorexia internalized is the very object of 

■j c c 

Socratic elenchus or refutation. ' Furthermore, making a new lifestyle for Rhiannon 
that involves rewriting a new narrative that is freed of cultural images can be identified 
with, on the other hand, freedom from the dominance of the internalized power of 
anorexia, and on the other, creation of the new lifestyle. 



4. Conclusion 

Adolescence is a stage of human growth that involves of change in two 
dimensions. One is that adolescents want to form their identities through dialogues 
The other is that adolescents need to change or re-create their lifestyles through dialogues. 
According to this therapy of narrative therapy, adolescents in a sense are formed within 
dialogues. 

What narrative metaphor says is that "Narrative creates the world of life." 
What narrative therapy says is that "Externalizing conversations and new story formation 



355 Ibid., 24. 



185 



create change of lifestyles." 

As is generally known, Socratic midwifery is constituted of elenchus or 
refutation and intuition. Socrates would say that human dialogues bear elenchus, or 
refutation of human lives, and intuition of new human lives. As I have demonstrated in 
this paper, the two stages of human dialogues seem to match not only those of narrative 
therapy technically but also needs of adolescents educationally. 



186 



NARRATIVE SERMON 
BEYOND CULTURE-LADEN NEIGHBORHOOD 



Luke 10:25-37 

Important Concepts: Lined Up Neighbors, Physical Neighbors, "Love Your Neighbor as 
Yourself, and "Love implies "needing help" physically." 



"Who is my neighbor," Jesus was questioned by a lawyer. There is a similar 
Korean proverb: "People are judged by the company they keep." That question in a 
sense seems to question Jesus' personality. Most Koreans know what "Don't keep bad 
company" means: its philosophy of identity. 

Jesus knew what it meant since he had grown up according to the Jewish tradition 
of church, i.e., synagogue worship and religious observance common to the Jews of his 
time. He observed all the Jewish ceremonies, and especially accompanied his earthly 
mother Mary. He was an earnest student at his "church." Luke records, "Jesus 
increased in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man." (2:52) 

Students grow older and experience changing relationships with their friends 
They become aware of their relationships with friends changing according to their school 
levels and living conditions In the same way, Jesus gradually became aware of his 

187 



fellow Jews' culture of life. He was already in his thirties. He knew how the Jewish 
culture taught its people to realize who their neighbors are. 

The Jewish culture lined up and classified neighbors according to a cultural map, 
as our Korean culture has done. Cultural neighborhood therefore does not have any 
power in the world of life. The reason is that the culture in fact spoke of the relation of 
angels and the poor on the one hand rather than addressing the neighbor relationship itself. 
It described the relation of servant-and-stronger on the other hand, but neither angels nor 
servants have their own names. They have no friends. They hear only from God and a 
stronger. 

Jesus said, "A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among 
robbers, who striped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half-dead.' 1 That is, 
the man was at death's door. 

When a priest saw him he passed by on the other side. So likewise a Levite 
passed by on the other side. The man who met with the robbers should neither be a 
strong man nor a man who God indicated as well as nor one of their friends, according to 
their purity system. Jesus now denies such Jewish culture-laden identity. Jesus seems 
to say that God should also pass by on the other side of the priest and the Levite when they 

188 



need any help from God. 

Jesus kept saying, "But a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was. and 
when he saw him, he had compassion." The Samaritan took care of him and made a 
promise to heal him in his name. The Samaritan seemed to do all he could. Jesus now 
should paraphrase what he taught his disciples. "Be merciful, even as your Father is 
merciful." (Luke 6:36) 

Jesus questions, "Which of these three, do you think, proved neighbor to the man 
who fell among the robbers?" "The one who showed mercy on him." "Go and do 
likewise." There is no boundary in helping others. 

"Who is my neighbor 9 " There is no cultural barrier to those who need help. 
Don't hesitate to make a friend. We should go beyond culture-laden boundaries of 
neighborhood. Amen, Hallelujah! 



189 



WORKS CITED 



Websites: 

Christian Today ( http ://www. christiantoday. net ) 

The Council of Korean Churches of Greater New York ( http://www.nyckcg.org ) 

The Dong-A Ilbo ( http ://www. donga, com ). 

Hankook Ilbo ( http://www.hankooki.com ). 

Joong-Ang Ilbo ( http://www.joins.com ). 

The Korea Times ( http://www.hankooki.com/times.htm ). 



Korean Newspapers: 

"Division: The Enemy of Growing Korean Churches." Jung-Ang Ilbo, New York ed. 10 
January 2002. 

"Don't Maltreat the Old Apart From Respect." Seigeo Ilbo, New York ed 4 January 2002. 

"The Korea Christian Society of Ministers Inquiry." The Korea Daily, New York ed. 10 
January 2002. 

"The Korea Christian Society of Ministers 1000 Inquiry." The Korean Christian Press, 
U.S.A. ed. 12 January 2002. 

"Korean Church Growth in Confucian Tradition." The Korean Christian Times, USA ed. 

190 



11 January 2002. 

Still, Matthew. "Korea Inner Manner- Japan Outer Manner." The Korea Times, New York 
ed. 8 January 2002 



Bibles: 

The Holy Bible, Self-Pronouncing ed. New York: A Meridian Book, [1974]. 

The New American Bible, Saint Joseph ed. Woodland Bills: Benziger Publishing Company, 
[1992]. 

The New Testament, Revised Standard Version and Korean Revised Hankul Version. 
Seoul: The Korean Bible Society, [1985]. 



Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, and Directories: 

An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, 7 th ed. Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. 
Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1975. 

Brown, Lesley, ed. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles, 
1993 ed. Vols. 1 & 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. 

Brown, Raymond, Joseph Fitzmyer, and Ronald E. Myrphy, eds. The New Jerome Biblical 
Commentary. Englewood cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1990. 

Churches Directory of NY 2003. Flushing: The Council of Korean Churches of Greater 

New York, 2003. 

The Encyclopedia Americana, International ed. Danbury: Grolier, 2001. 

191 



The Institute of Korean Religion and Society. A Dictionary of Korean Religion and 
Culture, Korean version. Seoul: Jipmundang, 1991. 

Lee, Chongsung, Sunggu Cheong, Sunwoo Hong, and Seowon Hwang, eds. Grand 
Christian Word Dictionary: The Whole of the Scriptural, Hymnal, and Christian 
Terms, Korean ed. Seoul: The Korea Society of Missionary Literature, 2000 

Korean Churches Yellow Pages 2003. Los Angeles: Christian Today, 2003. 

Longman Dictionary of American English, New ed. White Plains: Longman, 2000. 

Neusner, Jacob, Alan Avery-Peck, and William Green, eds. The Encyclopedia of Judaism. 
New York: The Continuum Publishing Company, 1999. 

New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967. 

New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2d ed. New York: Gale, 2003 

New Concise Korean Dictionary, Korean ed. Seoul: Dong-A Publishing Company, 1976. 

The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Ready Reference, 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, Inc., 1998. 

O'Collins, Gerald, and Edward G. Farrugia. A Concise Dictionary of Theology, Revised 
and Expanded ed. New York: Paulist Press, 2000. 

Richardson, Alan, and John Bowden, eds. The Westminster Dictionary of Christian 
Theology. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1983. 

Roof, Wade Clark, ed. Contemporary American Religion. New York: Macmillan 
Reference USA, 2000. 

Runes, Dagobert D , ed. Dictionary of Philosophy . New York: Philosophical Library, 1942 



192 



Articles: 

Allen, Ronald. "Preaching and the Other." Worship 76-3 (2000): 211-25. 

Baker, Don. "Christianity "Koreanized."" In Nationalism and the Construction of Korean 
Identity, Korea Research Monograph 26, ed. Hyung II Pai and Timothy R. 
Tangherlini, 108-125. Berkeley: The Regents of the University of California, 
1999. 

Cavanagh, Michael E. "The Concept of Sin in Pastoral Counseling." Pastoral Psychology 
41-2(1992): 81-87. 

Carlson, John. "Self-Esteem in the Ministry of Jesus." Pastoral Life 50-6 (2001): 7-13 

Chilton, Bruce. "E. P. Sanders and the Question of Jesus and Purity." In Jesus in Context: 
Temple, Purity, and Restoration, ed. Bruce Chilton and Craig Evans, 221-230 
New York: Brill, 1997. 

Cisetti, Joseph. "A Man Sent from God." Emmanuel 100-10 (December 1994): 619-23 

Conway, Martin. "A Universal Faith in a Thousand and One Contexts." International 
Review of Mission, Christian Faith and Cultures. 84-332/333 (1995): 133-48. 

Crossan, John. "Jesus and the Kingdom: Itinerants and Householders in Earliest 
Christianity." In Jesus at 2000, ed. Marcus J. Borg, 21-53. Boulder: Westview 
Press, 1997. 

Curley, Terence. "Pastoral Notes: The Ministry of Consolation." Pastoral Life 50-11 
(2001): 15-18. 

Dominian, Jack. "The Pastoral Experience." In Companion Encyclopedia of Theology, ed. 
Peter Byrne and Leslie Houlden, 794-816. New York: Routledge, 1995. 

Dominic, A. Paul. "Learning from Jesus, the Son of Man." Review for Religious Living 

193 



Our Catholic Legacies 62-1 (2003): 63-71. 

Douglas, Ian T. "Baptized into Mission: Ministry and Holy Orders Reconsidered." 
Sewanee Theological Review 40-4 (1997): 431-443. 

Duraisingh, Christopher. "On Baptism: Its Meaning and Practice, Fall 2002," TMs 
(photocopy). Appendix 6, Episcopal Divinity School, Cambridge. 

Evans, Craig A., "The Ministry of Jesus in the Gospels." In Community Formation in the 
Early Church and in the Church Today, ed. Richard N. Longenecker, 59-72. 
Peabody:Hendrickson Publishers, 2002. 

Fahey, Michael A. "Church." In Systematic Theology. Vol. II, ed. Francis Schussler 
Fiorenza and John P. Galvin, 1-74. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991 . 

Galvin, John P. "Jesus Christ." In Systematic Theology. Vol I, ed. Francis Schussler 
Fiorenza and John P. Galvin, 249-324. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991. 

Hart, Richard. "Preach Through Healing." Pastoral Life 48-12 (1999): 13-19. 

Hughes, Alfred. "Healing Which the Church Offers." Pastoral Life 30-6 (1981 ): 29-36 

Jacob, Sunny. "The Significance of Jesus for the Ho Adivasis: Toward a Contextual 
Theology." Third Millenium 4 (Oct-Dec 2002): 54-62 

Joncas, Jan. "Tasting the Kingdom of God: The Meal Ministry of Jesus and Its 
Implications for Contemporary Worship and Life." Worship 74-4 (2000): 329-65. 

Kujawa, Sheryl A. "Disorganized Religion," In Disorganized Religion: The 
Evangelization of Youth and Young Adults, ed. Sheryl A. Kujawa (Cambridge: 
Cowley Publications, 1998), 222-240. 

LaVerdiere, Eugene. "A Garment of Camel's Hair." Emmanuel 92-10 (December 1986): 

544-551. 

194 



"Robed in Radiant White." Emmanuel 90-3 (April 1984): 138-142. 

Lawrence, Fred. "Gadamer, the Hermeneutic Revolution, and Theology." In The 
Cambridge Companion to Gadamer, ed. Robert J. Dostal, 167-201 Cambridge 
Cambridge University Press, 2002. 

"Narrative and Conversion: Voegelin and Jonas on Freedom in Augustine." 

Boston: Eric Voegelin Society, American Political Science Association, 28 
August 2002. Photocopied. 

Lee, Deokju. "Diversity in Studying Theology: Succeeding Korean Theology." In A 
History of Korean Religious Studies for Liberation 50 Years, Korean version, ed 
The Korean Society of Religion, 69-116. Seoul, Korea: Chang Publishing, 1997. 

Lindsey, William D. "Jesus and the Church." The Ecumenist: A Journal for Promoting 
Christian Unity -27-1 (1989): 23-28. 

Magana, Alvaro Quiroz. "Ecclesiology in the Theology of Liberation." In Systematic 
Theology: Perspectives from Liberation Theology, ed. John Sobrino and Ignacio 
Ellacuria, trans. Robert R. Barr, 178-193. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1996 

McAlear, Richard. "The Ministry of Healing." Pastoral Life 29-10 (1980): 24-28. 

McDonnell, Kilian. "The Baptism of Jesus in the Jordan and the Descent into Hell." 
Worship 69-2 (1995): 98-109. 

McGowan, Andrew. "Living and Proclaiming the Baptismal Covenant, Congregational 
Studies Day, May 1999," TMs (photocopy). Episcopal Divinity School, 
Cambridge. 

Meyer, Ben F. "Jesus' Ministry and Self-Understanding." In Studying the HistoricalJesus: 
Evaluations of the State of Current Research, ed. Bruce Chilton and Craig A. 
Evans, 337-52. New York: E. J. Brill, 1994. 



195 



Min, Pyong Gap. "Korean American Families." In Minority Families in the United States: 
A Multicultural Perspective, 2d ed., ed. Ronald Taylor, 189-207. Upper Saddle 
River: Prentice Hall, 1998. 

Moeller, Pamela. "Forum: Creating Worship Events.' 1 Worship 69-1 (1995): 65-78. 

Neyrey, Joreme H. "The Symbolic Universe of Luke- Acts: "They Turn the World Upside 
Down"," In The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation, ed. 
Jerome H. Neyrey, 271-304. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. 

O'Hanlon, B. "The Third Wave." Networker (Nov/Dec 1994): 19-29. 

Palatty, Paul. "Discipleship: A Call with a Mission." Third Millenium 4 (Oct-Dec 2002): 
26-42. 

Pathrapankal, Joseph. ""Making Disciples" (Mt. 28:18-19) in the Early Church and Its 
Contemporary Challenges." Third Millenium 4 (Oct-Dec 2002): 6-25. 

Phan, Peter C. "Conversion and Discipleship as Goals of the Church's Mission." East 
Asian Pastoral Review 39-2/3 (2002): 111-134. 

Pilch, John. "Understanding Healing in the Social World of Early Christianity." A Journal 
of Bible and Theology: Biblical Theology Bulletin 22.1 (1992): 26-33. 

Poel, Cornelius. "Celebrating the Mysteries of Worship and Union in Love." Pastoral Life 
48-3 (1999): 29-32. 

. "Healing Human Woundedness." Pastoral Life 48-2 (1999): 25-29. 

. "Human Life Absorbed into the Life of Christ." Pastoral Life 48-1 (1999): 21-24. 

. "Living the Sacraments." Pastoral Life 47-2 (1998): 17-21 . 



Schneiders, Sandra. "Does the Bible Have a Postmodern Message?" In Postmodern 

196 



Theology: Christian Faith in a Pluralist World, ed. Frederic Burnham, 56-73. 
New York: Harper and Row, 1989. 

Sedgwick, Timothy F. "Making the Connections: Developing the Ministry of the Laity." 
Ministry Development Journal 17(1989): 3 -7 . 

Tamez, Elsa. "Cultural Violence against Women in Latin America. " In Women Resisting 
Violence, ed. Mary John Mananzan and others., 11-19. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1996. 

Thompsett, Fredrica Harris. "The Primacy of Baptism: A Reaffirmation of Authority in 
the Church." In Beyond Colonial Anglicanism: The Anglican Communion in the 
Twenty-First Century, ed. Ian T Douglas and Kwok Pui-Lan, 247-69. New York: 
Church Publishing Incorporated, 200 1 . 

Thompson, Thomas. "Miracles as "Signs of Christ."" Pastoral Life 48-12 (1999): 6-12 

Tucker, Karen. "Christian Rituals Surrounding Sickness." In Life Cycles in Jewish and 
Christian Worship, ed. Paul F. Bradshaw and Lawrence A. Hoffman, 154-72. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1996. 

Veldsman, D. P. "Remembering as Socio-Historic Dynamic of Religious Experience." 
Scriptura 42 (1992): 1-16. 

Voigt, Robert. "Does Jesus Heal People?" Pastoral Life 40-6 (1991): 21-24. 

Winkler, Jude. "Ministry in the New Testament." In Handbook of Spirituality for Ministers, 
ed. Robert Wicks, 330-346. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1995. 

Wright, Tim. "Defining Contemporary Worship." In Contemporary Worship, ed. Tim and 
Jan Wright, 23-26. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1997. 

Zuckert, Catherine H. "Hermeneutics in Practice: Gadamer on Ancient Philosophy" In 
The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer, ed. Robert J. Dostal, 201-24. 

197 



Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 



Books: 



Ackerman, John. Spiritual Awakening: A Guide to Spiritual Life in Congregations. New 
York: An Alban Institute Publication, 1994. 

Atkinson, H. Ministry with Youth in Crisis. Birmingham: Religious Education Press, 1997. 

Augsburger, David W. Pastoral Counseling Across Cultures. Philadelphia: The 
Westminster Press, 1986. 

Baptismal Questions and Answers, Korean ed. Seoul: The Korea Evangelical Holiness 
Church Press, 2001. 

Barnett, Paul. Jesus and the Logic of History. Grand Rapids: William B Eerdmans 
Publishing Company, 1997. 

Bartlett, David L. Ministry in the New Testament. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. 

Beasley-Murray, G. R. Baptism in The New Testament Grand Rapids: William B 
Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. 

Bloede, Louis W. The Effective Pastor: A Guide to Successful Ministry. Minneapolis: 
Fortress Press, 1996. 

Blomberg, Craig. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey. Nashville: 
Broadman and Holman Publishers, 1997. 

Bock, Darrell L. Jesus According to Scripture: Restoring the Portrait from the Gospels. 
Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002. 



198 



Studying the Historical Jesus: A Guide to Sources and Methods. Grand Rapids: 

Baker Academic, 2002. 

Boff, Leonardo. Ecclesiogenesis: The Base Communities Reinvent the Church. Maryknoll: 
Orbis Books, 1997. 

Borg, Marcus, ed. Jesus at 2000. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997. 

Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time: The Historical Jesus and the Heart of 

Contemporary Faith. New York: Harper San Francisco, 1994. 

Bredin, Eamonn. Rediscovering Jesus: Challenge of Discipleship. Quezon City: Claretian 
Publications, 1990. 

Briner, Bob, and Ray Pritchard. The Leadership Lessons of Jesus: A Timeless Model for 
Today's Leaders. Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 1997. 

Brown, Raymond E , Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Ronald E. Murphy, eds. The New Jerome 
Biblical Commentary . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1990. 

Brunner, Emil. The Divine Imperative: A Study in Christian Ethics, 2d ed. Translated by 
Olive Wyon. London: The Lutterworth Press, 1937. 

Burnet, John. Greek Philosophy . Hong Kong: The MacMillan Press Ltd., 1981. 

Cantalamessa, Raniero. The Holy Spirit in the Life of Jesus: The Mystery of Christ's 
Baptism. Translated by Alan Neame. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1994 

Capps, Donald. Pastoral Care and Hermeneutics Theology and Pastoral Care Series. 
Edited by Don S. Browning. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984. 

Carmody, John. Holistic Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1983. 

Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents 

199 



for a New Century. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1995, Oct 

Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? The George Macaulay Trevelyan Lectures 
Delivered at the University of Cambridge January-March 1961. New York: 
Vintage Books A Division of Random House, 1 96 1 . 

Carter, Edward. The Spirit Is Present: Themes on Christian Spirituality. Canfield: Alba 
Books, 1973. 

Chilton, Bruce. Jesus ' Baptism and Jesus ' Healing: His Personal Practice of Spirituality. 
Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 1998. 

Chilton, Bruce, and Craig A. Evans, eds. Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the 
State of Current Research. New York: E. J. Brill, 1994. 

Chinula, Donald M. Building King's Beloved Community: Foundations for Pastoral Care 
and Counseling with the Oppressed. Cleveland: United Church Press, 1997. 

Clark, Donald N. Culture and Customs of Korea. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000. 

Cone, James H. God of the Oppressed. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 2002. 

The Constitution, Korean ed. Seoul: The Korea Evangelical Holiness Church Press, 1998. 

Crossan, John. The Essential Jesus: Original Sayings and Earliest Images. Edison: Castle 
Books, 1998. 

The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. New York: 

Harper San Francisco, 1992. 

jfj Parables: The Challenge of the Historical Jesus. New York: Harper and Row, 

Publishers, 1973. 

. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. New York: Harper San Francisco, 1994. 

200 



Crow, Paul A., and James O. Duke, eds. The Church for Disciples of Christ: Seeking to Be 
Truly Church Today. A Report and Resource by the Commission on Theology 
Council on Christian Unity. St. Louis: Christian Board of Publication, 1998. 

Cummins, D. Duane. A Handbook for Today's Disciples in the Christian Church 
^(Disciples of Christ), Revised ed. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1991. 

Cunningham, Philip. Jesus and the Evangelists: The Ministry of Jesus and Its Portrayal in 
the Synoptic Gospels. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

The Way of All the Earth: Experiments in Truth and Religion. Notre Dame: 

University of Notre Dame Press, 1978. 

Cwiekowski, Frederick J. The Beginnings of the Church. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Davies, W. D. "Commentary on the Matthew." In The International Critical Commentary 
on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. Vol. III. Edited by J. A. 
Emerton. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997. 

Danker, Frederick W. Jesus and the New Age: A Commentary on St. Luke s Gospel, 
Completely Revised and Expanded ed. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988. 

Dewey, Joanna, David Rhoads, and Donald Michie. Mark As Story: An Introduction to the 
Narrative of a Gospel, 2d ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999. 

Donovan, J. M., ed. Short-Term Couple Therapy. New York: The Guilford Press, 1999. 

Doohan, Leonard. Luke: The Perennial Spirituality. Santa Fe: Bear & Company, Inc., 

1982. 

Dorr, Donal Option for the Poor: A Hundred Years of Catholic Social Teaching. 
Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1998. 

Dossey, Larry. Healing Words: The Power of Prayer and the Practice of Medicine New 

201 



York: Harper Paperbacks, 1997. 

Dube, Musa W. Postcolonial Feminist Interpretation of the Bible. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 
2000. 

Dussel, Enrique. Ethics and the Theology of Liberation. Translated by Bernard F. 
McWilliams, C.SS.R. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1978. 

Earey, Mark. Worship as Drama. Grove Worship Series. Cambridge: Grove Books 
Limited, April 1997. 

Echegaray, Hugo. The Practice of Jesus. Translated by Matthew J. O'Connell. Maryknoll: 
Orbis Books, 1984. 

Ellis, Peter F. Matthew: His Mind and His Message. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 
1974. 

Emerton, J. A., ed. The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments. Vol. 3. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1999. 

Engen, Charles Van. Mission on the Way: Issues in Mission Theology. Grand Rapids: 
Baker Books, 2000. 

Eun, Jun Kwan. Theological Ecclesiologies: Basileia and Ecclesia, Korean ed. Seoul: The 
Christian Literature Society of Korea, 1998. 

Fiorenza, Francis Schussler. Foundational Theology: Jesus and the Church. New York: 
Crossroad, 1984. 

Fiorenza, Francis Schussler, and John P. Galvin, eds. Systematic Theology: Roman 
Catholic Perspectives. Vols. I & II. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991 

Fodor, Jerry A. Psychosemantics: The Problem of Meaning in the Philosophy of Mind. 
Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1993. 

202 



Forestell, J.T. As Ministers of Christ: The Christological Dimension of Ministry in the 
New Testament-An Exegetical and Theological Study. New York: Paulist Press, 
1991. 

Freedman, Jill, and Gene Combs. Narrative Therapy: The Social Construction of 
Preferred Realities. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1996. 

Freeman, J., D. Epston, and D. Lobovits. Playful Approaches to Serious Problems: 
Narrative Therapy with Children and Their Families. New York: W. W. Norton 
& Company, 1997. 

Funk, Robert, and the Jesus Seminar. The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic 
Deeds of Jesus. New York: Harper San Francisco, 1998. 

Gebera, Ivone. Longing for Running Water: Ecofeminism and Liberation. Minneapolis: 
Fortress Press, 1999. 

Goergen, Donald. The Mission and Ministry of Jesus. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1986. 

Gray, Donald P. Jesus: The Way to Freedom. Winona: A Pace Book, 1984. 

Grayson, James Huntley. Korea- A Religious History. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2002. 

Grondin, Jean. Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics. New Haven: Yale University 
Press, 1994. 

Groome, Thomas. Sharing Faith: A Comprehensive Approach to Religious Education and 
Pastoral Ministry. New York: Harper San Francisco, 1991. 

Gula, Richard M. Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

Guthrie, William. The Greek Philosophers: From Thales to Aristotle. New York: Harper 
and Row, Publishers, 1960. 

203 



Gutierrez, Gustavo. A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Salvation. Translated 
and Edited by Sister Caridad Inda and John Eagleson. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
2002. 

Hall, Douglas John. Confessing the Faith: Christian Theology in a North American 
Context. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998. 

Hamel, Ronald, and Kenneth R. Himes. Introduction to Christian Ethics: A Reader. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

Han, Gil Soo. Social Sources of Church Growth: Korean Churches in the Homeland and 
Overseas. New York: University Press of America, Inc., 1995. 

Hartman, Lars. 'Into the Name of the Lord Jesus': Baptism in the Early Church. 
Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997. 

Herrick, Vanessa, and Ivan Mann. Jesus Wept: Reflections on Vulnerability in Leadership. 
London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1998. 

Hertig, Young Lee. Cultural Tug of War: The Korean Immigrant Family and Church in 
Transition. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2001. 

Herzog II, William. Jesus, Justice, and the Reign of God: A Ministry of Liberation. 
Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000. 

Hessel, Dieter T. Social Ministry, Revised ed. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 
1992. 

Hick, John. Disputed Questions in Theology and the Philosophy of Religion New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1 993 . 

Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew: New Century Bible Commentary Based on the 
Revised Standard Version. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1981. 



204 



Hodgson, Peter C. Revisioning the Church: Ecclesial Freedom in the New Paradigm 
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1988. 

Holland, Joe, and Peter Henriot, S.J. Social Analysis: Linking Faith and Justice, Revised 
and Enlarged ed. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1996. 

Hoobler, Thomas and Dorothy. Confucianism: World Religions. New York: Facts On File, 
Inc., 1993. 

Home, Herman Harrell. The Philosophy of Christian Education. New York: Fleming H. 
Revell Company, 1937. 

Jarrett, Emmett, ed. To Heal the Sin-Sick Soul: Toward a Spirituality of Anti-Racist 
Ministry. New London: The Episcopal Urban Caucus, 1996. 

Jeffrey, Richard. Formal Logic: Its Scope and Limits, 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, 1989. 

Jonas, Hans. Philosophical Essays: From Ancient Creed to Technological Man. 
Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1974. 

Karris, Robert J. Jesus and the Marginalized in John's Gospel. Collegeville: The 
Liturgical Press, 1990. 

Kealy, Sean P. Jesus and Politics. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1990 

Keating, Charles. The Leadership Book. New York: Paulist Press, 1982. 

Kim Lundell, In-Gyeong. Bridging the Gaps: Contextualization among Korean Nazarene 
Churches in America Asian Thought and Culture. New York: Peter Lang, 1995. 

Klein, William W, Craig L. Blomberg, Robert L. Hubbard, and Kermit A. Ecklebarger, 
eds. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Dallas: Word Publishing, 1993. 



205 



Kornfeld, Margaret. Cultivating Wholeness: A Guide to Care and Counseling in Faith 
Communities. New York: Continuum, 2001. 

Kuhrt, Gordon. An Introduction to Christian Ministry: Following Your Vocation in the 
Church of England. London: Church House Publishing, 2000. 

Kujawa, Sheryl A., ed. Disorganized Religion: The Evangelization of Youth and Young 
Adults. Cambridge: Cowley Publications, 1998. 

Kum, Chang Tae. Confucian Thought and Culture. A Series of Oriental Culture, Korean 
ed. Vol. 7. Seoul: Traditional Culture Study, Corporation, 1996. 

Kwon, Ho-Youn, Kwang Chung Kim, and R. Stephen Warner, eds. Korean Americans and 
Their Religions: Pilgrims and Missionaries from a Different Shore. University 
Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. 

LaCugna, Catherine Mo wry, ed. Freeing Theology: The Essentials of Theology in 
Feminist Perspective. New York: Harper San Francisco, 1993. 

Lafont, Ghislain. Imaging the Catholic Church: Structured Communion in the Spirit. 
Translated by John J. Burkhard. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 2000. 

LaVerdiere, Eugene. Luke. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, Inc., 1980. 

The Beginning of the Gospel: Introducing the Gospel According to Mark. Vol. 1 

Mark 1-8:21. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1999. 

Lee, Jung Young. Korean Preaching: An Interpretation. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1997. 

Marginality: The Key to Multicultural Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 

1995. 

Loder, James. The Transforming Moment: Understanding Convictional Experiences. New 
York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1981. 



206 



Lonergan, Bernard. Method in Theology. New York: Herder & Herder, 1972. 

Macdonald, Donald Stone. The Koreans: Contemporary Politics and Society, 3d ed. 
Edited and Revised by Donald N. Clark. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996. 

Mad sen, W. C Collaborative Therapy with Multi-Stressed Families: From Old Problems 
to New Futures. New York: The Guilford Press, 1999 

Malina, Bruce J., and Richard L. Rohrbaugh. Social-Science Commentary on the Gospel 
of John. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998. 

Manson, T. The Servant-Messiah: A Study of the Public Ministry of Jesus. New York: 
Cambridge at the University Press, 1961. 

Marrow, Stanley B. The Gospel of John: A Reading. New York: Paulist Press, 1995. 

Martin, Raymond. The Elusive Messian: A Philosophical Overview of the Quest for the 
Historical Jesus. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999. 



Studies in the Life and Ministry of the Historical Jesus. New York: University 
Press of America, 1995. 



Matsuoka, Fumitaka. Out of Silence: Emerging Themes in Asian American Churches. 
Cleveland: United Church Press, 1995. 

Maxwell, John. Worship in Action: A Parish Model of Creative Liturgy and Social 
Concern. Mystic: Twenty-Third Publications, 1981. 

McDonnell, Kilian. The Baptism of Jesus in the Jordan: The Trinitarian and Cosmic 
Order of Salvation. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1996. 

Mclntyre, Michael, Sister Luke Tobin, and Hazel T. Johns. Peaceworld. New York: 
Friendship Press, 1976. 



207 



Meier, John P. The Mission of Christ and His Church: Studies in Christology and 
Ecclesiology. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, Inc., 1990. 

Messer, Donald E. Contemporary Images of Christian Ministry. Nashville: Abingdon 
Press, 1989. 

Meyer, Marvin. Who do People Say I Am? The Interpretation of Jesus in the New 
Testament Gospels. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 
1983. 

Micks, Marianne. Deep Waters: An Introduction to Baptism. Cowley Publications, 1996. 

Min, Pyong Gap. Changes and Conflicts: Korean Immigrant Families in New York. 
Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. 

Mitchell, Stephen. The Gospel According to Jesus: A New Translation and Guide to His 
Essential Teachings for Believers and Unbelievers. New York: Harper Collins 
Publishers, 1991. 

Moltmann, Jurgen. The Church in the Power of the Spirit: A Contribution to Messianic 
Ecclesiology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. 

Monk, G , J. Winslade, K. Crocket, and D. Epston, eds. Narrative Therapy in Practice: 
The Archeology of Hope. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997. 

Mott, Stephen. Jesus and Social Ethics. Grove Booklet on Ethics No. 5. Bramcote: Grove 
Books, 1984. 

Moxnes, Halvor. The Economy of the Kingdom: Social Conflict and Economic Relations 
in Luke s Gospel . Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988. 

Myers, Bryant L. Walking with the Poor: Principles and Practices of Transformational 
Development. Maryknoll: Orbis Book, 2002. 



208 



Neyrey, Jerome H., ed. The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation. 
Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. 

Noddings, Nel. Philosophy of Education. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 

O'Connell, Timothy E. Principles for a Catholic Morality, Revised ed. New York: Harper 
San Francisco, 1990. 

O' Grady, John F. Disciples and Leaders: The Origins of Christian Ministry in the New 
Testament. New York: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Okasha, Samir. Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford 
University Press, 2002. 

O'Neil, J. C. Messiah: Six Lectures on the Ministry of Jesus. The Cunningham Lectures 
1975-76. Cambridge: Cochrane Press, 1980. 

Osborn, Ronald E. The Faith We Affirm: Basic Beliefs of Disciples of Christ. St. Louis: 
Chalice Press, 1979. 

Panikkar, Raimundo. Worship and Secular Man . Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1973. 

Pearce, Stephen. Flash of Insight: Metaphor and Narrative in Therapy. Boston: Allen and 
Bacon, 1996. 

Phan, Peter C , and Jung Young Lee, eds. Journeys at the Margin: Toward an 
Autobiographical Theology in American-Asian Perspective. C ol lege vi lie: The 
Liturgical Press, 1999. 

Porter, J. Jesus Christ: The Jesus of History, the Christ of Faith. New York: Oxford 
University Press, 1999. 

Putnam, Hilary. Realism and Reason. Philosophical Papers. Vol. 3. New York: Cambridge 
University Press, 1992. 

209 



Representation and Reality. Cambridge: A Bradford Book The MIT Press, 19%. 

Queen II, Edward L., Stephen R. Prothero, and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr The 
Encyclopedia of American Religious History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 
1996. 

The Reporters Group of the Korea Christian Newspaper. Truth and Falsehood of the 
Korean Church, Korean ed. Vol. I. Seoul: Kumran Publishing Co., 1993. 

Reumann, John. Jesus in the Church's Gospels: Modern Scholarship and the Earliest 
Sources. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1968. 

Richardson, Ronald W. Creating a Healthier Church: Family Systems Theory, Leadership, 
and Congregation Life . Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996. 

Ricoeur. Paul. A Key to Edmund Husserl's Ideas I . Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 
1996. 

Ridderbos, Herman N. The Gospel According to John: A Theological Commentary. 
Translated by John Vriend. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing 
Company, 1997. 

Rohrbaugh, Richard L. The Biblical Interpreter: An Agrarian Bible in an Industrial Age. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978. 

Royce, Josiah. The Problem of Christianity. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of 
America Press, 2001. 

Russell, Letty M. Church in the Round: Feminist Interpretation of the Church. Louisville: 
Westminster/John Knox Press, 1 993 . 

Sachs, John R. The Christian Vision of Humanity: Basic Christian Anthropology. 
Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1991. 



210 



Saliers, DonE. Worship and Spirituality. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1984. 

Sanders, E. 77k? Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Allen Lane The Penguin Press, 
1993. 

Jesus and Judaism . Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986. 

Schnackenburg, Rudolf. Jesus in the Gospel: A Biblical Christology. Louisville: 
Westminster John Knox Press, 1995. 

Schork, R. T. Joyce and Hagiography: Saints Above! Gainsville: University Press of 
Florida, 2000. 

Scott, Bernard. Jesus, Symbol-Maker for the Kingdom. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981. 

Shorter, Aylward. Toward a Theology of Inculturation. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1997. 

Simmons, William A. A Theology of Inclusion in Jesus and Paid: The God of Outcasts 
and Sinners. Lewiston: Mellen Biblical Press, 1996. 

Sneller, Alvin. The Secret of Korea Church Growth, Korean ed. Seoul: The Korean 
Reformative Association of Faith and Deeds, 1992. 

Song, C. S. Jesus in the Power of the Spirit. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994. 

Steinke, Peter L. Healthy Congregations: A Systems Approach. New York: An Alban 
Institute Publication, 1996. 

Sugirtharajah, R. S. Asian Biblical Hermeneutics and Postcolonialism: Contesting the 
Interpretations. The Bible & Liberation Series. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1998. 

Sweeley, John. Jesus in the Gospels: Man, Myth, or God, Revised ed. New York: 
University Press of America, Inc., 2000. 



211 



Switzer, David K. Pastoral Care Emergencies. Creative Pastoral Care and Counseling 
Series. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000. 

Tammany, Klara. Living Water: Baptism as a Way of Life. New York: Church Publishing 
Incorporated, 2002. 

Tatum, W. In Quest of Jesus: A Guidebook. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1982. 

Taylor, Vincent. The Life and Ministry of Jesus. New York: Abingdon Press, 1955. 

Torrance, James B. Worship, Community & the Triune God of Grace. Downers Grove: 
Inter Varsity Press, 1996. 

Toulouse, Mark L. Joined in Discipleship: The Shaping of Contemporary Disciples 
Identity, Revised and Expanded ed. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1997 

Treston, Kevin. A New Vision of Religious Education: Theology, History, Practice, and 
Spirituality for DRE's Catechists, and Teachers. Mystic: Twenty-Third 
Publications, 1993. 

Vermes, Geza. Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. Philadelphia: 
Fortress Press, 1985. 

Warren, Michael, ed. Changing Churches: The Local Church and the Structures of 
Changes. Portland: Pastoral Press, 2000. 

White, James F. A Brief History of Christian Worship. Nashiville: Abingdon Press, 1993. 

Wicks, Robert J., ed. Handbook of Spirituality for Ministers. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1995. 

Wiest, Walter, and Elwyn A. Smith. Ethics in Ministry: A Guide for the Professional 
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990. 

Willimon, William H. Worship as Pastoral Care . Nashville: Abingdon, 1980 

212 



Winslade, J., and G. Monk. Narrative Mediation: A New Approach to Conflict Resolution. 
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2000. 

Witherington HI, Ben. The Jesus Quest: The Third Search for the Jew of Nazareth 
Downers Grove: Inter Varsity Press, 1997. 

Wong, John B. Christian Wholism: Theological and Ethical Implications in the 
Postmodern World. New York: University Press of America, Inc., 2002. 

Wright, N. T. The New Testament and the People of God: Christian Origins and the 
Question of God. Vol. 1. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992. 

Yang, Nak Heong. Reformed Social Ethics and the Korean Church. New York: Peter Lang, 
1997. 

Young, Pamela Dickey. Re-creating the Church: Communities of Eros. Harrisburg: Trinity 
Press International, 2000. 

Young, Peter. Celebrate Life Rituals for Home and Church. Cleveland: United Church 
Press, 1999. 



213 



^-Cf 



EDS/WESTON JESUIT LIBRARY 





3 0135 00247 30" 



mm